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aristotles essay This essay was submitted by a student who scored A grade (30/35) overall. Detailed marking comments to essay, follow. Pop Art Thesis. Aristotle#8217;s Theory of the Four Causes is a theory that explains how everything that is observed in the world appears to have existed through cause and effect. The point is that these four causes can encompass an objects complete description, such as what it#8217;s made of, what it looks like, what made it and its purpose. The Causation theory is the basis for essay for 3rd, much of Aristotle#8217;s work, including Physics, Metaphysics, and The Politics. They clearly define Aristotle#8217;s way of studying the institute for applied critical, world around him, which is empirical and observant of essay for 3rd class, what we can see and know; a trait completely different to what Plato taught.
The Final Cause differs greatly from the others because it describes something#8217;s ultimate purpose, not just a material viewpoint, and God (or the Prime Mover) has to be our Final Cause as he alone is perfection, and everything good that we do is to seek perfection. The first three causes are the - essay, Material Cause, the Formal Cause and the Efficient Cause. The Material Cause is what something is made of, and without the essay, material to calgary, make the object, the essay, object could not exist. This essay is made up of words, but without words the essay would cease to exist. The Formal Cause is for applied what the shape of an object is, or perhaps the structure of the object that makes it what it is. Without its shape it is just the material that has potential to be an object. This essay is in the shape of an essay; it has a title, is structured in paragraphs, and the sentences make sense and are relevant to the question being asked. If this essay was just a completely random combination of letters or words it would not be an essay, it would be gibberish. The Efficient cause is what brought about the existence of an object, by for 3rd class, shaping the materials into rudd bonhoeffer what it is. An essay is created by for 3rd class, the person who writes it, and good, therefore this person is the Efficient Cause. Alone, these three Causes explain what the object is and how it came into being, but that is that.
They do not explain what the object does, or what reason it was made. Without the for 3rd class, Final Cause, this theory does not explain why, but only how. The Final Cause therefore explains the purpose of a thing#8217;s existence, and what it is for. An essay could have many purposes. Its purpose may be to rudd, earn the for 3rd, student a high grade, show the teacher how much the code, student has advanced, educate others, and so on.
According to Aristotle, everything has a purpose, including nature. Whether the purpose of a creature or plant is useful to man is irrelevant. For example, bees are useful to us because they make honey, but that does not mean that it is their purpose. For 3rd. Their purpose perhaps could be to pollinate flowers, or perhaps to make their hive grow as large as possible. The Final Cause is thinking therefore perhaps the most important cause because it describes the for 3rd, object in a non-materialistic way and gives us an idea on why it is there. We do nothing without a reason for doing it, so every single action also has a Final Cause. What separates the Final Cause further than the three other causes is the fact that Aristotle#8217;s idea of God is the code, Final Cause of change and movement, and therefore God is the Final Cause of essay class, us. Aristotle#8217;s description of God arises from the idea of movement having a mover. Any kind of bonhoeffer, change has to have been made to happen by something or someone.
A football flies through the air because it has been kicked by a footballer. Aristotle says that this eternal movement and change had to have started off with an unmoved mover, or Prime Mover. This is something that is a mover but does not move itself. According to the laws of physics, one cannot simply move something without moving itself, meaning that this Prime Mover is not the Efficient Cause of eternal movement. This is for 3rd where Aristotle reasons that the Prime Mover must be a sort of perfect God, that caused movement through it wanting to be like him.
Movement occurs as its purpose is to critical, be like God, therefore the class, Final Cause of all movement and rudd, change is the Prime Mover. This is perhaps the most important reason why the Final Cause is so different from the other causes because it is essay for 3rd class actually the reason why we are all here in the first place, because humanity and expert calgary, the rest of nature wants to be as perfect as God, who doesn#8217;t even know we exist. The other causes have only come as products of the essay class, Final Cause, showing how important this cause is in Aristotle#8217;s theory. (B) Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of Aristotle#8217;s ideas about cause. (10 marks) Aristotle#8217;s causation theory is fundamental to most of the works that Aristotle has written. Not only to they explain how one should observe the world around us but also to understand why objects and living things exist, whilst defining our own purpose in relation to an oblivious higher power. The way he describes to observe something is a strength because it means that virtually every physical object can be identified and described in the simplest format. And if everything has a purpose, it gives purpose to living anyway. Surely this is criteria good analysis a positive outlook on life that one should adopt if a purpose to life is desired? But this raises the question: does everything have a purpose?
Suggest you have a book that you are reading. The purpose of that book is to entertain you or inform you. But when you turn a page you accidentally rip of a piece of the corner, and you end up with a torn piece of paper between your fingertips. What is the function or purpose of that small bit of torn paper? Through your mistake, you have created something pointless, and although we can see how it was made and class, why it came to be made in that way, it does not have a purpose to do something and it never will. Pop Art Thesis. The same can go for litter. It once had a purpose, but once that purpose is essay for 3rd class exhausted, what is it supposed to do then? And what of creatures or diseases that endanger other life? What is the point of a cancer cell#8217;s existence but to cause misery? Aristotle would argue that a cancer cell#8217;s purpose would be to criteria analysis, be a successful cancer cell, and to grow and essay class, multiply as big as possible, as that is hamlet questions how it survives.
This may sound terrible but in relation to other living things it raises the important fact that all of nature has its own purpose, whether it is useful to us or not. A sheep is useful to us because it gives us wool and we can ultimately eat its babies, but that is not its purpose. The sheep#8217;s purpose is to grow to be the ideal sheep, through eating grass and reproducing to help the essay for 3rd, race of sheep. This is a strength because it shows to us that nature itself has a purpose and we should not assume that its purpose should be to be useful to us. And one cannot argue that we, being divine beings have nature as our servant, because otherwise everything would have a function for questions, us. For 3rd. But many would argue that nothing has a purpose and good essay, things exist because they just do. Only man can have a purpose because it is essay for 3rd class intelligent enough to give itself a purpose. a person is not born with one, however they choose it for pop art thesis, themselves. This is an essay for 3rd existentialist theory and greatly conflicts with the Causation theory. Institute For Applied. And to many it seems like a lot more realistic, as if something was to essay for 3rd, have a purpose it must have been assigned that purpose by rudd bonhoeffer, a greater power.
To Aristotle, the essay, greater power is the Prime Mover, but he doesn#8217;t even know of our existence, so he certainly didn#8217;t give us a purpose. If he didn#8217;t, what did? Aristotle combats this by hamlet - essay questions, saying it is how the Prime Mover is so perfect we a drawn to wanting to be like him as everything wants to be perfect, therefore the Prime Mover is everything#8217;s final cause. This too seems like a valid explanation against Existentialists, showing a strength in his teachings. But he never describes the link between us and the Prime Mover. Class. How do we know of his existence in criteria for a analysis, the first place, and do we really feel drawn to be like him? It also implies that all inanimate objects somehow have a desire to essay for 3rd, be perfect, which can seem absurd. Aristotle#8217;s causation theory provides an accurate account of dress code, observation but the Final Cause appears unreliable in describing how absolutely everything has a purpose. “I’m just so grateful without your site I would have crumbled this year” Wow! Thanks very much for this help. It is an excellent basis for my revision.
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Heat Pump Essays and Research Papers. Heat Pump ------------------------------------------------- A heat pump can provide an . alternative to using your air conditioner. * Heat pumps can supply heat , cooling, and hot water. * Your climate and essay class site will determine the type of essay, heat pump most appropriate for your home. For 3rd! For climates with moderate heating and cooling needs, heat pumps offer an energy-efficient alternative to furnaces and air conditioners. Institute Critical Thinking! Like your refrigerator, heat pumps use electricity to move heat from a. Air conditioner , Building engineering , Central heating 895 Words | 3 Pages. Global Geothermal Heat Pump System Market Research Report 2014-2018. Analysts forecast the for 3rd, Global Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP) System market to grow at a CAGR of 15.50 percent over the period . 2013-2018. Code Essay! One of the key factors contributing to this market growth is the need to reduce the essay class, dependence on rudd bonhoeffer fossil-fuels. The Global GHP System market has also been witnessing the increase in technological advancement. However, the essay, need for high levels of initial investment could pose a challenge to the growth of this market.
Global GHP System Market 2014-2018, has been prepared. Geothermal heat pump , Geothermal heating , Geothermal power 724 Words | 4 Pages. Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Systems. ? Air Conditioning and code essay Heat Pump Systems Clinton Ward COM155 February 17, 2013 Joyce Keeling Air Conditioning and . Heat Pump Systems Air conditioners and essay heat pump systems are used by most people in the world today. Criteria Analysis Essay! They are used to cool in the summer time and to heat in the winter time.
These machines are bought and used when most people do not even understand the principle on which they work. The machines are expected do what they are designed to do, and when they cease to do this. Air conditioner , Gas compressor , Heat exchanger 1483 Words | 4 Pages. enough refrigerants to satisfy all load conditions. It is not a temperature control, suction pressure control, or a humidity control. The . refrigeration system can be defined as a closed system in which the process of absorbing and rejecting heat is performed by flowing a refrigerant in a vapor compression cycle. In its simplest form, the refrigeration system consists of five components: the compressor, condenser, evaporator, expansion device, and interconnecting piping. The thermostatic. Evaporation , Fundamental physics concepts , Gas 830 Words | 3 Pages.
indoor component is an evaporator and fan. Essay! The two sections are connected with a set of electrical wires and pop art thesis tubing used to transport air between the two . sections. Indoor components Components | Functions | | Evaporator coil: It is where the heat exchange is done with the room. It consists of essay for 3rd, fins and tubes. | | Remote control: It is where user control the functions of the air conditioner. Displays at the panel may indicate the mode of hamlet - essay questions, operation, timer, on/off status, fan speed and other. Air conditioner , Air conditioning , Dehumidifier 1633 Words | 6 Pages. Air Source Heat Pump Description and Operation: A heat pump is classified according to the . source from which it extracts heat , i.e. the low temperature heat source. One that collects and utilises thermal energy from the outside air to heat the home and provide domestic hot water is called an essay class, air source heat pump . In an air source heat pump , outdoor air is drawn into the heat exchanger, which contains coils filled with a pressurised refrigerant gas. The refrigerant gas referred to here is. Central heating , Energy , Heat 1164 Words | 4 Pages. Company Introduction, Market Segmentation Product Positioning.
Virginia mild winters and hot humid summers, BACS understands how important it is to have your heating and questions cooling systems running when you need them the . most. Our expert heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) services furnaces, boilers, and heat pumps , as well as central air-conditioning units. Essay Class! Furthermore, we offer several full service agreements at a modest price to suit your needs. Institute For Applied! Our mission statement is: We are a growing team of experts passionately dedicated to identify our client’s needs. Air conditioner , Air conditioning , Heat pump 1287 Words | 4 Pages. operation according to the actual and to simplify air conditioning facilities management. Also without taking the device layer, can reducing utilities and . construction investment to easily with the house renovation. And, it is running by water source heat pump , no combustion process to avoid the sewage, effectively saving energy and class operating costs and code it general service life more than over system, about of 15-25 years. Acoustic and essay class sound control In addition to, design the air condition and ventilation. Acoustics , Air conditioner , Air conditioning 631 Words | 2 Pages.
Global HVAC Equipment Market 2014-2018. report considers the revenue generated from the Residential HVAC Equipment market as well as the Non-residential HVAC Equipment market, from the essay, sales and . maintenance of HVAC equipment such as air conditioners, furnaces, boilers, unitary systems, heat pumps , and other heating, cooling, and ventilating equipment. View our full TOC here Key Regions EMEA APAC Americas Key Vendors Carrier Corp. Daikin Industries Ltd. Ingersoll Rand plc Johnson Controls Inc. For 3rd Class! LG Corp. Other Prominent. Air conditioner , Furnace , Gree Electric Appliances Inc of expert writer, Zhuhai 328 Words | 3 Pages.
with the help of essay for 3rd, John Hague developed Perkins idea which was more of an experiment if anything else. The basic function of the early refrigeration used . Pop Art Thesis! ammonia and ether too very dangerous substances in class a recycling method of condensing and compressing heat in the air into liquid form. Although Perkins refrigerator completed the task of keeping foods cool there was some much needed modification. Like many other inventions the refrigerator began to evolve more, because ether and ammonia are dangerous. Cooling technology , Food preservation , Heat pump 884 Words | 4 Pages. Introduction Geothermal is derived from the Greek word ‘geo’ which means ‘earth’ and ‘thermal’ meaning ‘ heat ’, therefore geothermal refers to . an energy or heat from the earth. In layman’s terms it is referred to power resulting from the thermal activating within the earth’s crust as a result of volcanic activity.
Geothermal energy’s resources range from the hamlet - essay questions, surfaces just below the earth, to essay for 3rd the hot rock, which heats water deep beneath the earth. These steam reservoirs can be used to pop art thesis generate electricity for. Binary cycle power plant , Energy , Geothermal energy 1308 Words | 4 Pages. Oil/wood | 3000 | 1555 | .518 | 9100 | 3 | Gas/wood | Exercise 2 * Geothermal heat is essay for 3rd class, having another revival. Explain how it works . in a home and how much it would cost to add this to your home (determines your square footage or use an average 2000 square foot home)? Cite your references. Due to the rising cost of energy and oil Geothermal is having another revival. Geothermal heat pump doesn't create heat by expert resume writer calgary, burning fuel, like a furnace does. Heating utilizes the natural temperature of the. Energy , Geothermal heat pump , Heat pump 2039 Words | 6 Pages. (3)“Radiant heat enthusiasts typically use fuel-burning systems or electric systems to heat their homes.
However, with rising . energy prices, this may not be cost-effective in some areas. For those who want a cost-effective solution that doesn't harm the environment, there are alternative heat sources available. Here, the two most popular alternatives, which are geothermal heating systems and solar heating systems” (Anonymous, 2006). Geothermal heating, also known as a ground source heat pump or . Energy , Energy conversion , Geothermal heat pump 1826 Words | 6 Pages. Informative Report on Colin Sell's Home Improvement with Home Heating. the installation fee is slightly higher.
Water radiators: They are used to heat the area surrounding them and are normally made of iron, . For 3rd! copper or steel. For Applied Critical Thinking! The water radiators are safe to use and simple to install because they do not need any wires or electricity. Class! Therefore, the installation fee is bonhoeffer essay, not expensive, and there is no cost of energy or effect on the environment since water radiators use hot water from boilers to heat . In the for 3rd, long term, water radiators can be very economical because they can. Carbon dioxide , Central heating , Furnace 1545 Words | 5 Pages. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump System.
Introduction Heat pump is considered to be the rudd, most effective way to provide space heating and essay for 3rd class cooling compared to electrical . heater or fire heater. It normally counts for more than half of the total energy usage of each house or building. However, the economical and institute thinking environmental burden of heat pump has become larger and larger due to for 3rd class the growing awareness of the rudd, greenhouse effect and the increasing price of electricity. For 3rd! A number of modifications have been added to heat pumps to increase its performance. Energy , Geothermal heat pump , Heat 1491 Words | 5 Pages. alternative heat sources in order to save on the high-energy costs of heating a home. Many alternatives have been used.
However, over the past . Dress Code Essay! twenty years, some homeowners have turned to just one of those alternative heating sources, and that heating source is geothermal heat . Geothermal heating is the new efficient, long-term cost effective, and for 3rd class environmentally safe, way to heat a home. Geothermal technology uses the essay, heat from the sun-soaked soil underground (about 4 to 6 ft) to heat a structure. Central heating , Geothermal heat pump , Geothermal heating 984 Words | 3 Pages. geothermal heat pumps to heat buildings during winter time. | . | |Picture 3. Main building | GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes referred to as GeoExchange, earth-coupled, ground-source, or water-source heat pumps. Building engineering , Downhole heat exchanger , Geothermal heat pump 1835 Words | 7 Pages.
Project – I DESIGN OF GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP A Project Report Submitted By Peter Galimutti (2474762) Neeraj Pastakia . Essay For 3rd! (2462895) Balasubrahmanyam Vanum (2474858) (MCE 622: Energy Conversion) MASTER OF SCIENCE IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Fall 07 Under the esteemed guidance of Dr.Earnest N.Poulous (Associate Professor) DEPARTMENT. Energy , Energy development , Geothermal heat pump 2694 Words | 13 Pages. ? Heat pump From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For theoretical background, see . For A Good Analysis! Heat pump and refrigeration cycle. Outdoor components of essay, a residential air-source heat pump A heat pump is a machine or device that transfers thermal energy from one location, called the source, which is at a lower temperature, to another location called the sink or heat sink, which is at a higher temperature. Thus, heat pumps moves thermal energy opposite to the direction.
Central heating , Energy , Geothermal heat pump 5742 Words | 22 Pages. name. Geo means earth and thermal means heat , so geothermal is the hamlet - essay, earth's natural heat (Geothermal Research Council). There . are three different classifications of essay for 3rd class, geothermal energy; low, moderate, and high temperatures. The low temperature energy is less than 194 degrees Fahrenheit; it is used for ground source heat pumps . Code! Ground source is used to essay for 3rd heat pumps at 40 degrees to dress code 100 degrees. Essay! The geothermal heat pump , also known as the rudd bonhoeffer, ground source heat pump , is essay for 3rd class, a highly efficient renewable energy. Coal , Energy development , Geothermal energy 803 Words | 3 Pages. maqlGeothermal Heat Pumps The heat pump was described by Lord Kelvin in essay 1853 and developed by Peter . Ritter von Rittinger in 1855.
After experimenting with a freezer, Robert C. For 3rd! Webber built the first direct exchange ground-source heat pump in rudd essay the late 1940s. The first successful commercial project was installed in the Commonwealth Building (Portland, Oregon) in 1946, and has been designated a National Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by for 3rd class, ASME. The technology became popular in Sweden in for applied thinking the. Central heating , Geothermal heat pump , Geothermal heating 4967 Words | 13 Pages. deregulated with the goal to for 3rd class lower the price we pay for the service and control its demand.
When a refrigerant changes phase from a liquid to a gas, . what does it do? A) It Creates Energy B) It Makes A Whistling Sound C) It Adsorbs Heat D) It Gives Off Heat Which types of plants are best to plant around your home in order to keep sunlight out during summer months, but allow sunlight in questions during winter months? A) Various Shrubs B) Deciduous Trees C) Pine Trees D) Sunflowers In TA's. Electromagnetic radiation , Energy , Geothermal heat pump 766 Words | 3 Pages. No. 1: Heat Pump Experiment 1. Objective The objective of the essay for 3rd class, experiment is to measure the calgary, Coefficient of Performance . (COP) of a Heat Pump . 2. The experimental setup The equipment provided is a heat pump with pressure and temperature sensors placed at various locations. 3. Procedure Study the diagram and equipment provided and essay class identify the various components of the Heat Pump – that is, the compressor (1-2), the condenser (2-3), the expansion valve (3-4) and the evaporator (4-1).
Chemical engineering , Heat , Heat exchanger 313 Words | 2 Pages. ? What is pop art thesis, a heat pump ? A heat pump is a machine that by reversing its refrigeration cycle can . provide heating instead of cooling. Essay For 3rd! Because a heat pump uses a refrigerant it can upgrade the heat in air at even -15?C to pop art thesis a usable heat source to heat buildings. Difficult to understand perhaps but imagine a domestic fridge or freezer, reverse its cycle and that black grille on the back will be very cold whilst inside will be very hot. Heat pumps can extract heat from air and water and are nearly always. Air conditioner , Coefficient of essay, performance , Gas compressor 1017 Words | 3 Pages.
vapour absorption system uses heat energy, instead of expert, mechanical energy as in vapour compression system, in order to essay class change the condition of . the refrigerant required for the operation of the refrigeration cycle. In this system, the compressor is dress, replaced by an absorber, a pump , a generator, and a pressure reducing valve. This complete papers discuss about the essay class, theoretical calculations are made of different components of the systems like evaporator, absorber, condenser and pump of vapour absorption system. Energy , Evaporation , Heat 2006 Words | 7 Pages. 6) A motor vehicle with an internal combustion engine; 7) A nuclear power plant; and, 8) A coal-fired power plant. * Energy waste of an . internal combustion engine – 80% of the energy in its fuel * Cogeneration aka combined heat and power – two useful forms of energy (steam and electricity) are produced from the institute for applied, same fuel source 9) Saves energy and money 10) Energy efficiency as high as 80-85% * CAFE standards – Corporate Average Fuel Standards 11). District heating , Fluorescent lamp , Heat 799 Words | 4 Pages. activities were the essay for 3rd, lowering energy costs in the home.
People sometimes think this to be hard but here are some good steps to follow to make it seem it . easier. Reset the water heater thermostat, people do not always realize that most water heaters heat water to a set temperature and then hold it there, meaning that throughout the day and night the water heater cycles on and off, just maintaining that already set temperature. If we were to institute thinking go the water heater and lower the setting a few degrees it. Energy development , Greenhouse gas , Heat 832 Words | 3 Pages. Energy Efficient Buildings Internal Heat Gains and Design Heating Cooling Loads Internal Heat Gains People and electrical . equipment in buildings give off heat . These internal heat gains must be included in energy balances on for 3rd the building or zone to determine the net heating or cooling load. Heat Gain From People Typical sensible, latent and total heat rates given off by dress, people are shown in the table below (ASHRAE Fundamentals, 2005).
The sensible heat gain results from radiation and convection. Air conditioner , Energy , Heat 788 Words | 4 Pages. A Project Report On AIR CONDITIONER '' WINDOW TYPE Submitted By JOEL A. OOMMEN Air Conditioner Window Type: [pic] . An air . conditioner is an for 3rd class, appliance, system, or mechanism designed to extract heat from an area via a refrigeration cycle. Pop Art Thesis! In construction, a complete system of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning is referred to as HVAC. Its purpose, in essay for 3rd class a building or an automobile, is to provide comfort during either hot or cold weather. History: In 1820, British. Air conditioner , Air conditioning , Coefficient of performance 7708 Words | 38 Pages. Load in - kW/ton The term kW/ton is commonly used for larger commercial and industrial air-conditioning, heat pump and . refrigeration systems. The term is essay, defined as the ratio of class, energy consumption in - essay questions kW to the rate of heat removal in tons at essay the rated condition. The lower the kW/ton the writer calgary, more efficient the system. KW/ton = Pc / Er (1) Where Pc = energy consumption (kW) Er = heat removed (ton) Coefficient of Performance - COP The Coefficient of essay class, Performance - COP - is the dress code, basic parameter.
Air conditioner , British thermal unit , Chiller 529 Words | 2 Pages. Direct Exchange Geothermal Heat Pump. geothermal heat pump The Direct exchange geothermal heat pump is the oldest type of geothermal . heat pump technology. Class! It is also the simplest and easiest to criteria for a good analysis essay understand. For 3rd Class! The ground-coupling is achieved through a single loop circulating refrigerant in direct thermal contact with the ground (as opposed to a combination of a refrigerant loop and a water loop). The refrigerant leaves the bonhoeffer essay, heat pump appliance cabinet, circulates through a loop of copper tube buried underground, and exchanges heat with the. Geothermal heat pump , Heat , Heat exchanger 386 Words | 2 Pages.
2013 01_A3_ 20 years from now I chose the technology of for 3rd class, Refrigeration to hamlet think about for 3rd class twenty years from now. Hamlet Questions! A refrigerator Is a common household . appliance that consist of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump ( mechanical, electronic, or chemical) that transfers heat from for 3rd class, inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the hamlet - essay, fridge is cooled to essay for 3rd class a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. A refrigerator is a common essential technology apart of bonhoeffer essay, our. Absorption refrigerator , Cooling technology , Electrolux 738 Words | 2 Pages. dreadful without an air conditioner. Essay For 3rd! Refrigerators use refrigerants to carry heat away from the dress code essay, inside of the fridge. This is essay class, done . by injecting the refrigerants into a tube inside the refrigerator in dress code liquid form and it slowly begins to vaporize. Taking heat away makes the temperature cooler. When the liquid is for 3rd class, done vaporizing, it travels to a coil on the outside of the fridge where it releases heat and becomes a liquid again. The process starts over again. After researching.
Absorption refrigerator , Air conditioner , Cooling technology 679 Words | 5 Pages. ENGINE EXHAUST HEAT RECOVERY WITH QUASITURBINES KAVIRAJ.P* . DINAKARAN.K* *Pre-final year Automobile students, Madras Institute of Technology, Anna University, Chennai Kavi.firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com ABSTRACT Today hybrid concepts with energy storage are ways to correct the institute for applied, poor piston engine efficiency at. Energy , Entropy , Heat 1724 Words | 6 Pages. Product Selection for marketing research analysis. includes a five-year warranty on parts and a seven-year warranty on the compressor.
Benefit – Mitsubishi's multi-head split systems are designed to . Essay Class! heat and cool individual rooms. The benefit is that it gives consumers the ability of only heating and cooling rooms frequently used, saving them on expert resume calgary energy costs. A central heating and cooling system heats or cools all rooms including those that are not frequently used often resulting in energy waste and higher utility bills. Price: The Installation. Air conditioner , Air conditioning , Central heating 2004 Words | 8 Pages. efficient-in the range of 95 to 97 percent. These units use ‘ ‘condensing’ ‘ technology, in which the essay class, latent heat of the Space Conditioning . in Residential Buildings Both the efficiency of the space conditioning equipment and the design of the building itself influence the institute for applied thinking, amount of energy needed to maintain comfort in essay for 3rd a residential building.
A very efficient furnace will still use a lot of expert resume, energy to heat a poorly insulated, drafty building, while a well-insulated building in a moderate climate may need. Efficient energy use , Energy conservation , Energy crisis 57809 Words | 187 Pages. airconditioning applications into essay for 3rd comfort and process applications. Comfort applications aim to provide a building indoor environment that remains . relatively constant in a range preferred by humans despite changes in external weather conditions or in internal heat loads. Air conditioning makes deep plan buildings feasible, for essay otherwise they have to be built narrower or with light wells so that inner spaces receive sufficient outdoor air via natural ventilation. For 3rd! Air conditioning also allows buildings to be. Air conditioner , Air conditioning , EcoCute 9643 Words | 47 Pages. Estimation of rudd bonhoeffer, Market Size of for 3rd class, Hvac System. in that the heat generation occurs in one place, such as a furnace room in a house or a mechanical room in a large building (though not . necessarily at the central geometric point). The most common method of heat generation involves the combustion of hamlet, fossil fuel in a furnace or boiler.
The resultant heat then gets distributed: typically by forced-air through ductwork, by water circulating through pipes, or by steam fed through pipes. Increasingly, buildings utilize solar-powered heat sources, in. Air conditioner , Air conditioning , Central heating 2624 Words | 14 Pages. Automatic Temperature Control Fan. heated the car radiator rotates more fastly such that it can control the temperature of the engine before it gets damaged due to class heating.
Car radiator . assembled in a car : [pic] A radiator is a common used term for expert resume writer many different types of heat exchanges. Essay For 3rd! The radiator can be located under the hood of the vehicle as it is mounted behind the - essay questions, vehicle’s grille. For 3rd! A radiator does not have any electronic parts of its own. Special sensors will register the code essay, temperature of the for 3rd class, coolant as it exits the. Automatic control , Control theory , Engine 2219 Words | 14 Pages. The effects of for applied critical, subcooling and superheating in refrigeration system. occurs in a refrigeration system when it undergoes Subcooling and essay Superheating. Rudd Essay! Introduction: Process Involved: Process 1-2 Isentropic . Compression Process 2-3 Constant Pressure heat rejection Process 3-4 Isenthalpic process therefore; Process 4-1 Constant Pressure heat absorption inside the evaporator Coefficient of Performance is given by; Some factors that affect the Coefficient of Performance of the refrigeration are; Sub Cooling of liquids Superheating. Chemical engineering , Energy , Enthalpy 472 Words | 3 Pages. A pump :is a device that moves fluids (liquid or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified . into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps . Pumps operate by some mechanism (typically reciprocating or rotary), and consume energy to perform mechanical work by essay, moving the fluid.
Pumps operate via many energy sources, including manual operation, electricity, engines, or wind power Type of. Centrifugal pump , Fluid dynamics , Liquid 2101 Words | 7 Pages. Wendy’s Chain Realizes Significant Cost Savings. restaurants use plenty of dress code essay, energy, and those located in warm climates like south Florida use even more. Essay Class! Restaurant chains have particular challenges to institute for applied critical thinking deal . For 3rd! with, from high-temperature broilers and other cooking equipment that produce large amounts of heat , to commercial-grade refrigeration for safe food storage, to robust HVAC systems to ensure customers have a comfortable experience. In 2007, along with several other Wendy’s franchise owners participating in a regional council, Dominguez volunteered. Heat , Heat pump , HVAC 696 Words | 3 Pages.
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cooling system essay Essay on lubricating oils for BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on them at every visit helps support this website! Clicking on something inside an for 3rd class advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function. Dress Essay? IN DEPTH discussion. LUBRICATION THEORY . as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in selecting oils, etc. © Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. Fleischer. Preface. Essay For 3rd Class? The importance of proper engine oil:
Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for the engine, but there are specific areas of the writer, engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the class, oil is not of proper quality and that means proper additives that are blended by the oil makers. The author's website, http://bmwmotorcycletech.info, contains several long article on how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Certain specific ingredients in the engine oil are very much needed to pop art thesis, avoid $$$ problems in your BMW Airhead motorcycle. For 3rd? THREE are critical. One of them is ZDDP (or ZDP). The amounts have been DEcreased, over time, in accordance with API, SAE, and institute critical, oil and auto manufacturer's changes. Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to avoid $$ spalling and essay class, other deterioration of the camshaft and for a good analysis, cam follower surfaces. Essay Class? Another ingredient is needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and pop art thesis, followers (and other items in the engine) do not have the for 3rd, oil dripping off and leaving the metal unprotected at engine startup. The final ingredient (of major importance) is hamlet questions that the amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of ZDDP.
There are SEVERAL oil articles on this website. They are generally in the section of articles 49 through 51D. You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into base stock oils to help form better 'thin oil films', so the oil is essay not pounded-out by impact forces. Dress Code? Actually, the oil can also be 'moved out' by rotating forces, that make the oil set up like ocean waves.
Areas especially in need might be such as the essay for 3rd class, small ends of the rods, when at top-dead-center. Very LITTLE engine wear is from dynamic friction . that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. Dress? MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on other areas, . during COLD STARTUP; provided that the essay for 3rd, oil contains proper additives. Regarding cam lobes, the Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. Hamlet - Essay? These types of engines are common to for 3rd class, those of code flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on the old VW Beetle, the Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Owners of these types of vehicles are sometimes made aware of REAL engine failures ($$$) from wrong types of for 3rd oils. In particular camshaft and code, lifter wear.
Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters). Essay? NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology. The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and some into K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. Institute Critical? The use of NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and carbon deposits that can, and will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. Essay For 3rd Class? For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: http://www.toptiergas.com/ Click around at the headings at the top.
4. More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from expert calgary lobes of the valves camshaft. Class? Oil has become critical for these engines. Further, the gasoline makeup and type of oil is institute thinking MUCH more critical for deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more). It is essay for 3rd DIFFICULT on many of these engines to clean-up the critical, deposits.
Chemicals may not work well, and $$$ disassembly and blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed. Removing and replacing a head or two heads for this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and grade, of engine oil and essay class, engine oil filter, that the pop art thesis, car manufacturer has recommended. Class? DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the oil retailer or container says it meets the specifications by the car manufacturer. If the car manufacturer has nothing about institute for applied, your proposed oil in essay for 3rd class, its APPROVED oil and filter literature, PASS on using it. or, study-up some, and then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in writer, all engine oils, and when they are, the concentrations vary . considerably! ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is a common anti-wear additive for use in mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of essay for 3rd synthetic components, and may well have quality additives that will last longer than the code, commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals.
It depends CONSIDERABLY on the 'quality' and amount of additives, and particularly how the for 3rd class, motorcycle is institute for applied ridden . For 3rd Class? such as very short 3 mile trips in high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Good? Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to popular belief, not a great idea. I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of your own research! I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to save you the trouble. There is class also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by calgary, Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the essay for 3rd, manufacturer wished, be called synthetic.
Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the pop art thesis, highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Essay? Another problem is that there are several types of base synthetic lubricants, and they are NOT all of the same quality or characteristics! I will get into essay them later in for 3rd, this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the resulting oil for your engine was equivalent in dress code, performance. For 3rd Class? UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close. Another problem is that, except for good analysis most of the specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about synthetic oil, is for 3rd that for MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an oil change. Some will burn off faster at the beginning, and hamlet - essay, that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What you MUST look out for is that the oils must be OK for YOUR particular motorcycle. Oil is much more critical for Airheads, as far as scuffing and lubrication goes.
HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is essay for 3rd $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and for a good analysis, not all that good for essay for 3rd your K bike either. More information is in my my http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/viscosity.htm article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in this article things will generally be more technical. Here is what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into layers. Expert Resume Writer? The top layer sticks to the surface, bottom layer sticks to essay class, the lower surface, and each successive layer travels at a lower speed, which shears the layers on either side. Oil film is criteria what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of 'oil films'. Essay For 3rd? The hydrodynamic film is for a good analysis essay only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of class which is the hydrostatic function which is primarily from oil pressure from the oil pump.
Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to rudd bonhoeffer, provide the 'keep the surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the essay for 3rd, bearing, etc. This is - essay questions critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for the starting up of the engine. Please be sure to for 3rd class, read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is dress code essay not really involved! If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is hardly the for 3rd, only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to provide a one-way clutch, and they have a habit of rudd bonhoeffer gumming up from oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by using high detergent oils or additives for awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and essay for 3rd class, the same high detergent additive routine may work here. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of lubricating base oils:
This particular section was plagiarized from criteria analysis several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by me. There is also a large amount of essay my own material here. Bonhoeffer Essay? Since it is all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. For 3rd Class? Further, I can't attribute to various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's.
A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc. This group of synthetics is primarily used for various industrial and rudd essay, aviation applications. Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and aviation applications. They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for very high temperature use. Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and gas turbines. They have a very low coefficient of friction and are sometimes added in small amounts to mineral oils and for 3rd, synthetic oils to lower the coefficient of dress friction of the finished product. Essay For 3rd Class? Diesters are most commonly used in hamlet - essay questions, aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer.
They are often added in small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is very beneficial to a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and are polar. meaning they have an electrical charge that causes them to cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials. Because of essay this they are often added in essay, small amounts to automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function. Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of favor in recent years.
More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days. For 3rd Class? I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. A discussion of why is in the brake and expert resume, chemicals articles. Terms and words used in the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to laypersons, and essay for 3rd, I am going to mention some of these terms briefly here, and expert resume writer calgary, if you are interested in a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the molecules are what is called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to longer chain types called PAO's.
These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from crude oils directly. although chemically they are similar in many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants? One must be very cautious about using the various Group IV and for 3rd class, V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an criteria for a good oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Class? Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for the even more technically-minded, lots of nerdy stuff too . on oil functioning . here I get into expert how lubrication really works, and for 3rd, lots more. Looking at bonhoeffer essay extremely tiny irregularities in as-machined and broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the oil to creep into very small microscopic areas. As the load increases, the oil is essay class squeezed between the good analysis essay, parts and dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for it (including small clearances). This is why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of essay for 3rd class compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is hamlet - essay also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified.
I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. One could say the for 3rd, same thing about many old engine designs. . and some of this applies to flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and so on (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is a fundamental principle. I will begin by discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over its 360° rotation due to when the piston pushes (and pulls) on the rod. In the bearing area itself, the criteria good essay, parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . Class? or egg shaped, or however you want to visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance.
This clearance is NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . more or less. Getting deeper into how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is - essay questions way too nerdy for even this article. It would get into what is really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the film can be penetrated, and so on. When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and essay for 3rd, my industry information, and they, mostly typewritten on pop art thesis, both sides of the paper, are inches thick. Lubrication is a VERY complex subject, AND . it is for 3rd still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. (at least in THIS article). So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is NOT the same. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and an antiwear agent, and most formulations are somewhat volatile to a bit too volatile. Expert Calgary? As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from class lower to higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP.
Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of questions course, zinc. The reduction in zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . which reduces or eliminates their prime function. The other reductions were to lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on modern cars and bikes. Think about what I just said about oxygen sensors. Essay For 3rd Class? You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for for a essay K bike oils, but you need SOME on essay, the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in a few areas, and not really advertised as such for hamlet lubrication purpose.
Thus, use of ZDDP and ZDTP in K bike oils is for 3rd class a trade-off. I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in a less volatile formulation. Critical Thinking? This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to class, even BMW recommendations . Rudd Bonhoeffer? but you need to KNOW. Getting the information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing. Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for proof of Snowbum's crazy ideas . For 3rd Class? So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is NOT a good idea.
One idea you might ponder upon (a tiny bit) is whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and dress essay, miles. For just one of essay for 3rd a number of code essay articles on this subject: http://papers.sae.org/2007-01-4133/ Obviously, there are limits. Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. Essay For 3rd? That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the gears WILL shear the longer-chain-molecules of the oil. This changes the viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on other oil qualities.
Such bikes should have the expert resume writer, oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and essay, Classic K bikes have separate engine and gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on these bikes. If you are going on longer rides, say over 40 miles in mild weather, and dress essay, most of your riding is on such longer rides, and for 3rd class, seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. Expert Resume Writer? In some instances even two years and essay for 3rd, 10,000 miles, but this would be about the LIMIT, under very best conditions, and would be for hamlet a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at for 3rd class not over 1 year and 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for a variety of reasons. Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to rudd bonhoeffer, THIN the base oil . so it flows and pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to thicken the oil at higher temperatures. There are limits to this sort of thing, and it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the SAE range of 10W50, and even 10W40, for DINO oils . and easier to do this type of essay for 3rd class oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . Dress? which, naturally, cost more.
Even back as little as. 1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for oil change intervals, and type of oils. Essay? Think about this . ask yourself WHY! Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS: General notes for the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and pop art thesis, probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. You CAN use them in an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience!
But, this bit of for 3rd class esoterica is critical thinking ONE of the essay class, three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for expert resume calgary Airheads, unless conditions warrant. I believe the essay, oils I have recommended, above, are OK in this regard. Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200. Use BMW premium oil filters in your Airhead. Use the institute for applied critical thinking, two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. Essay For 3rd? The K bike filter is upside down, so there is no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. Critical Thinking? NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to also NOT use K N AIR filters!
ZINC. ZDDP. ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. Essay For 3rd? expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. ETC. Yes, it is expert resume calgary true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. Essay For 3rd Class? It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into wide use for anti-scuffing. In the for a essay, 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of 0.07% was very helpful. Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the for 3rd, ZDDP in the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and lifters were protected from premature wear, particularly during the institute for applied critical thinking, critical break-in period.
As engines became more powerful, and pressures on parts increased, the level of zinc was increased to 0.09%. Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and more sophisticated. Essay Class? Fuel economy began to pop art thesis, be of some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into essay the 1980s and 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is also helpful for K bike engines, but particularly the pop art thesis, very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. Essay Class? FEW know about resume calgary, that, for the K100. ZDDP protects valve tips and pushrod tips. Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is class usually quite beneficial.
However, excessive amounts of ZDDP are not a good thing for such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the biggest item of importance in ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for rudd bonhoeffer essay engineers) on the effect of differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). Most of these types of charts (there are a lot of them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of essay parts. What is interesting about the charts is that the criteria, curve is NOT linear, particularly so at LOWER concentrations of phosphorus. At lower loadings, only essay class a concentration of maybe 0.03% is expert needed. At higher loadings. which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to think of high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. What is needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to burn-off of the additives, and for a safety factor. Additives cost more than the essay for 3rd class, oil stock does. You can read into resume calgary THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the fact that it takes ZINC to establish the proper glass layer from the phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is essay class bad for writer cat converters . so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for your Airhead bike!
ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and essay class, then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is almost completely eliminated. That is because the pop art thesis, additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the early stages of reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to 0.10%, and zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago. In 2004 came the so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to 10 years or 100K miles, and phosphorus dropped again, to 0.08% . and zinc went down to for 3rd class, 0.09%. The levels are much lower now . or, gone.
There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. These oils and the more precise automated machining and - essay, improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. It is also the reason that high mileages can be obtained on for 3rd, the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and pop art thesis, followers, is dealt with by essay, many small changes in modern engines. The result allows break-in of the cam and followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on ZDDP oils.
BUT, the dress code essay, zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Airheads; and if the essay for 3rd, cam, etc. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay? , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the wrong oil. Essay For 3rd Class? I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the Airhead engines. High valve spring loads compound problems. Pop Art Thesis? In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against the type of oil YOU NEED for your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available.
There is some information on oils, with the essay for 3rd class, heading title of Information on acceptable engine oils: in institute thinking, this linked article: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/oilcansimple. I suggest you either stop here read just that section in that article then resume here, or make a note to read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on the cam, etc., during assembly, for extra protection at first start-up. I have been asked about this subject, so thought I would put the essay class, asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough. Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in the rear drives in rudd bonhoeffer essay, the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil.
BMW knew what is correct, and I agree. GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for a thousand miles or so, see if it helps. If not, you have other problems. Class? It may increase the lifetime for the bearings, etc.
ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the Dow M product with synthetic oils, and DO NOT increase the dose! For the rear drive, you can use about 2%. Here is a link to hamlet - essay questions, an article about oils, especially for motorcycles, and it has some different, and interesting, viewpoints. It's a bit long, but worth the read, and for 3rd, you may well like the method of presenting the information. To all of you out there reading this hugely long article: It is all YOUR choice. I have only tried to inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and editing for analysis essay clarity.
Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for for 3rd class clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications. 07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in line with changes by SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in line with the for a good, latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section.
01/21/2010: minor updates and clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to section on ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the commentary slightly for the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article. 11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for class clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of criteria for a good zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on.
11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for clarity; add Ph and Z info on Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions. 09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on essay for 3rd class, 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about modern car engines needed oils filters. Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article. 03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in layout/fonts/etc.
Improve details in for a good analysis essay, section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils. 05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for essay for 3rd clarity. Slight updates on zddp amounts per for a analysis latest mfr information and testing.