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book report 47 ronin CHÛSHINGURA IN THE 1980S. Henry D. Smith II. Prepared for the Modern Japan Seminar, Columbia University, April 13, 1990. Please do not cite or reproduce without permission. Copyright 1990 Henry D. Smith II. All rights reserved. My curiosity about Chûshingura was first piqued in December 1981, by a remark of Tsurumi Shunsuke at a conference in determination London to the effect that if you study Chûshingura long enough, you will understand everything about the Japanese. My respect for Tsurumi as a pioneer scholar of modern Japanese popular culture helped convince me that perhaps I should some day learn more about what I had always felt to be a distasteful chapter in Japanese cultural history. For myself, whose acquaintance with Japan began only in primary homework egypt pyramids 1962 (the year of the last full-scale feature film production of Chûshingura and the end of an era in the mass popularity of the legend), Chûshingura was a thing of the past, indelibly linked with feudal values and prewar militarism. Of course, I loved the original joruri version of gattaca determination essay, Kanadehon Chûshingura as I knew it through Donald Keene's translation, which I had used in undergraduate courses, but that seemed something apart from the larger and vaguer Chûshingura that I associated with prewar Japan. The chance to rethink the story of the 47 Ronin came last year, when I had the prospect of teaching a graduate seminar at Columbia that I knew would include students in both history and literature, both modern and premodern: Chûshingura seemed a good way to bring these various interests into common focus.
This report stems from that seminar, and I am indebted in countless ways to the six graduate students who helped me work through some of the writing essay, issues treated in this paper--as well as many other issues that I will not have space to mention. (1) As part of my preparations for the seminar, I stopped by Kinokuniya bookstore in Shinjuku during a trip to Japan last summer, looking for recent writings about Chûshingura. I discovered not just one book or two, as I had expected, but a dozen and more volumes on determination essay Chûshingura, all of them recent. Most were non-fiction (it was, after all, the history section), but some were novels. And of course Kinokuniya did not have everything: in hamlet - essay the 1980s alone, I would now estimate, about forty new books on Chûshingura appeared, both fiction and non-fiction (see Appendix for a list of thirty). What was going on? Why this number and variety of books on what I considered to be safely history? Some of the books of course purported to be real history, revealing the truth of the essay, original Akô Incident, but a number were historical fiction, while still others analyzed the meaning of mba essay, Chûshingura in essay Japanese culture as a whole. Thesis Model. Somehow I had not expected much vitality from Chûshingura in the 1980s. As it turns out, the legend seems to gattaca determination remain as durable and versatile as ever, and it remains quite simply the most widely known and thesis statement frequently re-presented story in Japan. It seems a good time to try to place the entire phenomenon of Chûshingura in gattaca determination essay broader historical perspective. A good place to start is with the determination, question posed by the title of the single most provocative book of the 1980's, Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? (Chûshingura to wa nanika, 1984).
I have more simple-minded intentions than Maruya (to whose ideas I shall return at the end of this report) in posing this preliminary question. It is simply a problem of determination essay, definition: to what do we refer today when we use the term Chûshingura? Stop and ask yourself the same question, or better yet, ask it of any Japanese who (like most) has never considered the matter. The inevitable hesitation will bring home the dimensions of the problem: what in writing essay fact do we mean by Chûshingura? The actual word, of course, comes from the joruri Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748, and purists continue to use it in this restricted way. (2) In actual usage, however, the term has been constantly expanding over the years. In the late Edo period, it came to be used in determination the titles of variant kabuki versions of the story, and increasingly so in Meiji.
In late Meiji, as we shall see, there occurred a radical conflation of the previous genealogy of the Akô Incident, by which not only the different lineages of stage and story-telling, but also the mba essay, historical incident itself , were all gathered within Chûshingura as an umbrella term. Ultimately, the gattaca determination, only sensible definition of Chûshingura is as an all-encompassing term for the entire body of homework pyramids, cultural production that ultimately stems from the determination essay, Akô Incident of 1701-03. All parts of this body have in common an intention either to - essay questions tell the story, or to attempt to gattaca essay explain its telling--which becomes simply one more form of re-telling. In this sense, I am merely adding to the vast thing that is paper Chûshingura in producing this paper. Dealing with Chûshingura is somewhat like dealing with the Tar Baby: when you try to determination stand apart and assault it, you willy-nilly become part of thesis statement model, it. Gattaca Essay. This is gattaca essay precisely why Chûshingura is so tantalizing, and ultimately so frustrating for the historian. Let me nevertheless make my own effort to stand apart, and to see Chûshingura as something that does in fact have a history--a history in which the very notion of history performs a central function. In so doing, I have ended up strongly opposed to precisely what lured me to the topic in the first place, Tsurumi's proposal that Chûshingura has come to encompass all of the cultural proclivities of the Japanese people. Gattaca Essay. This type of writing essay, argument is essentially a type of Japanese exceptionalism, whether claiming that Chûshingura must be understood as part of the determination, basic Japanese preference for failed heroes ( hangan biiki ), or in terms of the Japanese tendency to act in groups, or as a reflection of the hierarchal organization of Japanese society--and so on. Of course it is all this, in varying degrees, but such an approach begs the question of Chûshingura's durability, since various other legends that are in these obvious ways Japanese have come and gone.
I propose, then, that the popularity and durability of Chûshingura deserve historical rather than cultural explanations, and that all those who interpret it as a peculiarly Japanese phenomenon are misleading us. Determination. The power of Chûshingura can ultimately be explained, I would argue, only by the particular nature of the original historical incident of 1701-03, and by the particular historical circumstances through which its retelling has evolved in gattaca determination essay the almost two centuries since. Rather than universally Japanese, I would argue, Chûshingura is particularly historical. The problem begins with giving a name to the incident that began it all. In Edo times, no one would have called it an incident, but would have referred to the forty-six--or forty-seven--samurai or the primary egypt pyramids, Akô gishi (or gijin). In Meiji times, it became more common to call it the Genroku incident. Among historians today, however, consensus seems to favor Akô incident, avoiding the problems of determination essay, whether Terasaka Kichiemon really should be counted as one of the group, or whether the Akô retainers were in fact righteous, or whether all Genroku need be subsumed by the affair. (3) A quick reminder of the essentials of the incident, or rather of the series of incidents involved in the Akô affair: it began on the 14th day of the Third Month of Genroku 14 [April 21, 1701], when the lord of Akô, Asano Naganori, drew his sword in a corridor of Edo Castle and slashed at the senior bakufu protocol official, Kira Yoshinaka. (4) It was the last day of the visit to debate essay Edo of gattaca, envoys from the imperial court in Kyoto, whose reception had been placed in the hands of Asano and writing debate another daimyo. Determination. Asano only wounded Kira slightly before he was restrained, and was immediately taken into custody and of rizal ordered to commit seppuku later the same day. Determination. Twenty-one months later, forty-seven of the egypt, former retainers of Asano, having signed an oath vowing to complete the deed at gattaca determination which their lord had failed, attacked the Edo mansion of Kira, took his head, and marched across the city to the temple of Sengakuji, where they offered the trophy before the grave of their master. After fully seven weeks of debate, the bakufu ordered the seppuku of the forty-six of the ronin who had surrendered themselves at Sengakuji.
The order was carried out the same day, on Genroku 16/2/2 [March 20, 1703], and the ashes of the ronin were interred at Sengakuji. Hamlet - Essay. The power of determination, survival of the Akô Incident in later imagination lies less in the drama implicit in this outline sketch than in the complexity and ambiguity of motivation involved both in the initial palace incident and in the night attack. The historical record, for example, does not explain why Asano attacked Kira in gattaca the first place, only that he cried as he struck, This is for that grudge I've had against you! (Kono aida no ikon oboetaru ka). This obscurity of motive, and the rather limited and contradictory information that we have about the personalities of the two men involved, have made it possible to engage in a wide range of speculation, particularly among amateur historians. Gattaca Determination Essay. To be sure, the traditional type of explanation, that Kira had offended Asano by - essay haughty behavior of some sort, remains the most plausible. Still, there is no hard evidence for determination, it, and the fact that the ronin in mba essay conclusion their voluminous correspondence never touched on the reason for Asano's grudge suggests that even they did not really know. Determination. The even greater ambiguity lies in the motivation and mba essay action of the ronin.
They justified the attack as a vendetta ( katakiuchi ) on behalf of their lord, but in no way did the case fit either the legal or the gattaca determination, customary definition of katakiuchi . Primary Homework Help Egypt. Kira, after all, was not their master's murderer: on the contrary, Asano had tried to determination essay murder Kira. Nor was there any justification for avenging the death of one's lord, only that of a family member: the questions, ronin even had to call on a Confucian scholar to come up with a textual basis for their action. Legalities aside, what was the underlying spirit of gattaca, their act? Was it indeed personal loyalty to their lord, as the mainstream of the gattaca determination, Chûshingura tradition would have it? Or was it a protest against the bakufu's lenient treatment of Kira for his involvement in the incident? Or was it a simple matter of personal honor to gattaca determination essay carry out their master's unfinished task? Or, as one school of interpretation would have it, were they impoverished samurai desperate for a new job and trying to prove their credentials? Whatever the truth of the matter, the ambiguities and complexities of the event itself provided plenty of leeway for a variety of widely differing interpretations. This would prove essential to the modern survival of Chûshingura. The Popular Response: Kanadehon Chûshingura. The nature of the immediate public response to the attack on Kira also presents difficult interpretive problems.
Consider what our own basic texts tell us: that the public was thrilled, (5) and that there was a spontaneous outpouring of admiration for this brave and selfless act. (6) Within Edo, of course, the news must have traveled swiftly, and writing essay public interest was surely high, but was there mass public sympathy for gattaca determination, the act? One member of the seminar attempted to look at the contemporary documentation of the incident, and statement found it to essay be a mass of contradictory and ambiguous evidence. (7) It is difficult to say whether the public was either thrilled or shocked: given the divisions that would soon emerge among samurai leaders on this issue, it seems at least reasonable to question the assumption that the help pyramids, public response was uniformly positive. Interesting new evidence on this score has recently been offered by gattaca determination Kôsaka Jirô in his best-selling book on the diary of a Nagoya samurai in model the Genroku era. The diarist, Asahi Bunzaemon, was alert to every bit of gattaca determination, gossip that passed his way, and he reported such incidents as love suicides in long and consuming detail. The vendetta of the Akô ronin, however, was reported in one utterly non-committal line, and their seppuku was not even mentioned. Kôsaka suggests that if the primary help pyramids, incident had been such a big stir in determination essay Edo, Bunzaemon would clearly have heard much more about it through his many sources and would have reported it in primary help greater detail. (8) The conventional evidence of public interest that has been cited in the past is a kabuki performance in Edo just twelve days after the seppuku of the ronin, which was ostensibly about the Soga brothers but clearly modelled on the Akô Incident.
The evidence for this and another account of early theatrical reenactments in Edo, however, is highly problematic and now discredited by many scholars. (9) It was rather in Kyoto and Osaka that one finds the more sustained response. Of course, the stricter censorship in Edo is doubtless the determination, key factor, but it remains a fact that the Chûshingura legend was created in Kamigata, where it was easier to fantasize about the paper, historical event. Particular revealing is the earliest known piece of determination, fiction based on thesis statement model the incident, an ukiyozôshi of 1705 entitled Keisei budôzakura , by the prolific Osaka writer Nishizawa Ippû. (10) The entire incident is transposed to determination the pleasure quarters, with Asano (Asamanosuke) as a chonin playboy skilled in the martial arts and Kira (Kichikô) as the pompous son of a nouveau riche merchant. Essay. The two conflict over a rivalry for the affections of the gattaca determination essay, courtesan Kurahashi, and it is actually Kichikô who attacks Asamanosuke, reversing the historical order of hamlet, aggression. Both are wounded, but Asamanosuke dies. The revenge is plotted by Densuke, a follower of Asamanosuke, in cahoots with Kurahashi and a band of other courtesans whom Asamanosuke had favored when alive. Densuke and fourteen courtesans attack Kichikô when he lets down his guard and visits the pleasure quarters, and then all commit suicide before Asama's grave.
Nowhere to essay be found in all of this is any trace of interest in term samurai valor or loyalty: the essay, real point of the term, story, argued Aoki Sentei, lay in gattaca essay the contrast of the sui style of determination essay, Asama and the stingy, boorish style of Kichikô. We are already at a long parodic remove from the event. The subsequent road to Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748 has been carefully traced by determination essay scholars of conclusion, Edo theater. (11) The pivotal year, it is now agreed, was 1710, the year after Tsunayoshi's death, when there appeared a cluster of plays that drew on the Akô Incident in elaborate and only thinly disguised detail. Other plays followed over the succeeding decades. Had it not been for the masterful work of synthesis performed by the team that wrote Kanadehon Chûshingura , however, one wonders whether the Akô vendetta would have survived as any more than one of many lesser themes in the joruri and kabuki traditions. Not only did Kanadehon Chûshingura provide the word Chûshingura, but its tremendous popularity assured that the theme would be imitated on a far more extended and imaginative scale than ever before. Fujino Yoshio has compiled a list of 70 such dramatic variants of the legend from 1748 until mid-Meiji. (12) Certain interesting trends appear from this data. First, the overwhelming number of new productions until the mid-1810s were created in Kamigata: 24 in Osaka and 4 in Kyoto, versus only 6 in Edo. In this same period, the number of joruri (15) remained about the same as kabuki (19). After this, however, the pattern is reversed, with 30 new works in Edo-Tokyo in the period 1818-1892, and only 6 in Osaka; of these, only one was joruri. As a growing tradition, in other words, one sees a clear shift from Osaka, where Chûshingura originated, to Edo-Tokyo.
It seems possible that this shift from west to east was paralleled by a change of emphasis within the tradition as a whole, from the erotic to the political. The theme of loyalty with which Kanadehon Chûshingura opens and closes, one might argue, is merely a veneer to make the essay, authorities happy, and serves to divert attention from the real concerns of the Kamigata audiences, the erotic and romantic themes that run throughout the play. In Edo-Tokyo, by contrast, with its greater traditional emphasis on formalism and on the macho bluster of the aragoto style, the theme of loyalty and political struggle is taken more seriously. It is revealing, for example, that in Kamigata performances, Kô no Moronao is depicted as above all lascivious, while Tokyo actors emphasize rather his haughtiness towards subordinates. (13) Given the richness and primary homework help complexity of the original joruri text, it is in fact possible to get quite different emphases from the play. Gattaca Determination. Even in Edo, however, Chûshingura was not always taken seriously, as demonstrated by the rich parodic tradition that emerged in the later eighteenth century. The earliest of these appears to of rizal be Hoseidô Kisanji's kibyôshi parody of 1779, Anadehon tsûjingura (roughly, A Treasury of Those In the Know, A Guide to the Pitfalls of gattaca determination, Life). Gattaca Essay. (14) In the preface, Kisanji writes that the loyalty of Ôboshi and the others was grand, but the real cause of the whole affair was En'ya Hangan's utter lack of gattaca essay, sophistication ( tsû ) in failing to realize that his bribe was too small. Thus having subverted the basic moral order of mba essay, Chûshingura, Kisanji proceeds to his own version, in which everyone is utterly preoccupied with worldliness and with whether others are being too stingy or not. This was followed by numerous other kibyôshi parodies, as well as such similar subversions of the legend as Shikitei Sanba's Chûshingura Henchikiron (1812), a perverse argument that diametrically opposes the received wisdom on Chûshingura, and gattaca Tsuruya Nanboku's kabuki Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan (1825), a tale of one of the disloyal retainers who did not participate in the vendetta. Model. The Popular Response: The Kôdan Retellings. The late Edo period meanwhile saw the development of a new and rather different lineage of gattaca determination, Chûshingura, in the genre of oral story-telling known as kôshaku (later kôdan ) that flourished on well into the Meiji period. Although these variants derived in many ways from the stage traditions, they differed in claiming to be real stories of - essay, real people, so-called jitsuroku , and hence used the actual names of the historical participants in determination the Akô Incident, rather than the pseudonyms of Kanadehon Chûshingura . As analyzed by Satô Tadao, the kôdan versions tended to emphasize the impetuous, heroic male aspects of the hamlet, legend, minimizing the romantic and domestic complications that were an important part of joruri and kabuki.
Thus the kôdan versions almost completely omit the story of the romance of Kanpei and Okaru that came to be so popular in the kabuki tradition. Satô sees in this a contrast in the social class of the audiences, with kabuki appealing to upper-class merchants firmly embedded in the feudal social order, and kôdan to lower-class artisans who live by their individual skills. (15) Another feature of the kôdan version was the elaboration of the heroic exploits of determination, individual members of the mba essay conclusion, band of forty-seven, thus developing the genre of gishi meimeiden , separate biographies of the loyal retainers. This feature reminds us how important it was that such a large number of individuals were involved in the historical Akô Incident--far more than had been involved in almost any of the other great vendettas in Japanese history. Some have interpreted this as a mark of group-oriented behavior, but it is revealing that in the kôdan tradition it allowed rather for the proliferation of determination essay, individualistic heroes, each with his own story. (16) In a sense, this division replicates the basic tension in the history of samurai values, between self-centered honor and self-negating loyalty. In the Meiji period, the kôdan versions--known by such titles as The 47 Samurai of primary help, Akô (Akô shijûshichi-shi) or Biographies of the Loyal Retainers (Gishiden)--were carried over into the genre of rôkyoku ( naniwa-bushi ), which began in Osaka in the late Edo period and in which oral narration was provided with samisen accompaniment.
The great popularity of the rôkyoku version of the Akô gishi in the late Meiji period, emerging directly from the kôdan tradition, provided the matrix for the modern emergence of Chûshingura as a cornerstone of emperor-system patriotism. The Revival of History and gattaca the Meiji Synthesis. For the first half of the Meiji period, Chûshingura survived with no major change in the two great Edo-period lineages of kabuki stage productions and kôdan story-telling. To be sure, the new regime seems to have appreciated the political uses of the 47 Ronin as early as 1868, when the term of rizal, Meiji emperor, not long after arriving in his new capital of Tokyo, sent an emissary to Sengakuji to place offerings before the determination, graves of the Akô ronin, together with a proclamation addressed to Ôishi and praising him for upholding the principle of the gattaca determination essay, master-follower bond. Yet this did not lead to gattaca essay any particular official manipulation of the legend to foster imperial loyalty: Chûshingura remained in the possession of the mba essay conclusion, people. The modern transformation of Chûshingura into what amounted to a piece of propaganda on behalf of gattaca, martial values and statement selfless sacrifice to the state came, revealingly, only after the way had been paved by gattaca determination the first modern historical studies of the conclusion, Akô incident. (17) This process began in 1889 with the appearance of The True Story of the Akô Gishi (Akô gishi jitsuwa), an account by Shigeno Yasutsugu (1827-1910), a pioneer of the essay, modern critical method in history.
Shigeno insisted on the need to separate out the mba essay conclusion, many counterfeits among the gattaca determination essay, surviving documents of the incident, in an effort to tell the writing debate essay, true story. The form of the book (which was related orally to a newspaper reporter) was an gattaca act-by-act analysis of Kanadehon Chûshingura , indicating what was true and what not. This marks the beginning of a new element in primary homework the Chûshingura phenomenon, the perception that the historical event constituted a different kind of story to be told, with different tools and methods. The way to a greater historicity may have been paved by gattaca essay the kôdan tradition and its stronger sense of the actual event--particularly in - essay questions the use of the historical names of the participants--but the line between history and fiction remained one that was never openly contested. Determination Essay. The pivotal work in the modernization of Chûshingura was Fukumoto Nichinan's Genroku kaikyo roku (Record of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku), published in late 1909. The use of the word Genroku signals Nichinan's consciousness of the historical event, and his work continued the hamlet - essay questions, spirit established by gattaca Shigeno of writing essay, trying to gattaca determination recover the original story. Still, Nichinan was a journalist not a historian, and still retained many elements of traditional kôdan-style embellishment.
Less than a year after the publication of hamlet - essay questions, Genroku kaikyo roku , however, the historiography of the Akô Incident entered a new era with the publication of the documentary collection Akô gijin sansho (3 vols.), which had first been assembled by determination Nabeta Shôsan, a samurai antiquarian from Iwaki in the late Edo period. Impressed by the need to establish his story on a firmer documentary basis, Nichinan rewrote his earlier version and primary homework egypt pyramids published it in 1914 as Record of the essay, Truth of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku (Genroku kaikyo shinsô roku). Writing Debate Essay. Although a less readable work, the effort to reach the truth of the event marks an entirely new attitude towards the Chûshingura legacy. Nichinan's two works, especially the first, were wildly popular in the patriotic climate of Japan following the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, and lay the foundations for the understanding of the story as one of martial valor and devotion to superiors. Although more conscious of the truth of the historical incident, Nichinan in no way compromised the essential emphasis on loyalty and valor. In this way, a more modern consciousness of the history of the Akô Incident was fused with the latent historicity of the kôdan tradition to yield a new rendering of the Chûshingura tradition, one particularly well suited to determination the times. The importance of historicity is paper revealed in essay comparing the fate of Chûshingura with that of the legend of the vendetta of the Soga brothers, which was a far longer and deeper tradition in many ways than Chûshingura, but which did not survive as a major theme in popular culture after the end of Meiji. The great liability of the Soga brothers is that they were almost impossible to recover for history, dating from a much earlier period and with virtually no documentary support. The late Meiji period also marks the gattaca determination, beginning of the entirely new Chûshingura genre of gattaca determination, film, which by the time it had run its course in the mid-1960s would have brought the story of the 47 Ronin to far more Japanese than ever in the past, and with a new level of power and immediacy.
The film historian Misono Kyôhei has counted a total of conclusion, sixty Chûshingura films in gattaca determination late Meiji and mba essay conclusion Taisho (1907-26), an gattaca determination average of three per year. (18) . The number would rapidly multiply in the years that followed. In general, the film tradition followed in the pattern set by the kôdan-rôkyoku tradition, of treating the Akô incident as a historical event rather than using the hamlet - essay questions, Taiheiki sekai of the stage tradition. Essay. The mounting nationalism of the hamlet, 1930s tended to leave the mainstream of Chûshingura locked into the mode that took shape in the 1910s, although some literary efforts subversive of that mainstream were already beginning to emerge among a small minority of intellectual writers, as we shall shortly see. The mainstream itself took a turn in a more intellectual direction with the epic new kabuki version of determination, Mayama Seika, Genroku Chûshingura , begun in 1934 as a piece for Sadanji II, and continuing through nine more installments until 1941 (by which time Sadanji had died). Mayama's pretensions as a historian are evident in the long and pedantic explanations he provides in the printed text, alleging his concern for period correctness.
Yet his work is every bit as much a product of the paper, ideology of determination essay, its own time, notably in his depiction of the anxiety of Ôishi over whether Asano's act might be interpreted as insulting to the emperor; this introduction of imperial loyalism into the minds of the 47 Ronin seems to be Mayama's innovation, with no historical justification. (19) The war interrupted the primary homework egypt, modern film mainstream of Chûshingura, but did not radically alter its course. Both stage and film versions of the story were prohibited under the early years of the Occupation for intimate associations with feudal values and wartime patriotism. From 1949, however, the ban on Chûshingura was lifted, and productions of both kabuki and film proceeded apace. This is by no means to say that the ideological emphasis remained unchanged. Gregory Barrett has suggested that the major shift was to play down the emphasis on abject loyalty to one's superior, and rather to stress Ôishi Kuranosuke's personal affection for his lord. (20) In a sense, the abstraction of loyalty that had allowed its modern transference from daimyo to emperor now reverted to a more direct and personal sort of loyalty. But the theme of loyalty itself remained central. The postwar survival of Chûshingura, however, was not simply a product of this kind of gattaca, re-direction. As Satô Tadao notes, Chûshingura was the only one of the Three Great Vendettas of the Edo period that did in fact survive the debate, war: nothing more was to be seen of the Soga Brothers or Araki Bunzaemon, names that are today virtually unknown to the majority of Japanese. (21) The advantage of gattaca, Chûshingura lay once again in mba essay conclusion the ambiguities and complexities offered by the historical incident itself. From even before the determination essay, war, Chûshingura had already entered a second phase of modernization, one which endowed it with distinctively anti-authoritarian overtones.
The Democratization of Chûshingura. In its very essence, the Akô Incident was politically multivalent. Although carried out in the name of loyalty to their feudal lord, the essay, vendetta of the essay, 47 Ronin was explicitly in defiance of the bakufu, as recognized by their death sentence. Given the essentially contradictory demands of loyalty under the bakuhan system, their action could be interpreted in gattaca two wholly different ways, either as confirming loyalty in the abstract or as negating loyalty not directed to determination essay the shogunate. Where the notion of public hung in the balance between bakufu and han, things could go either way. And so in the twentieth century, when public was again defined in ambiguous ways, either as personal loyalty to the emperor or as abstract loyalty to the state, the Akô Incident was perfectly placed to satisfy both. And even after the democratizing reforms of the Occupation period, the essay, Akô story could still be reoriented to adapt to new times, by conceiving of the determination, actions of the ronin as directed against the autocratic actions of the bakufu. This new democratic phase in the history of Chûshingura actually had its beginnings before the thesis, war, among the liberal and modernist intellectuals of the gattaca essay, Taisho and early Showa era. The earliest sign was perhaps Akutagawa Ryûnosuke's short story One Day in the Life of writing essay, Ôishi Kuranosuke (Aru hi no Ôishi Kuranosuke, Chûô kôron , Oct. 1917), a sketch of the leader of the 47 Ronin as he awaited the judgment of the bakufu following the vendetta. (22) It was modern in two senses. First, Akutagawa turned to the primary sources of the historical incident, in particular the account of Horikawa Den'emon, who was in charge of guarding the group at the Hosokawa mansion in which Ôishi had been placed.
Secondly, Akutagawa was interested in the human psychology of Ôishi as an individual with both strengths and weaknesses, rather than the stereotypical hero that had appeared in all earlier renditions. This interest in gattaca probing the more complex and human side of the participants in the Akô affair set into homework egypt pyramids, motion a strand of Chûshingura rendition that remains strong to this day. The modern turn also took a radical twist in the early Showa period with the first appearance of gattaca, interpretations that openly challenged the black-and-white idealism of the older Chûshingura tradition. First seems to have been a March 1928 essay by Hani Gorô seeking to reevaluate Ôishi, but I have not yet located a copy. (23) Another materialist interpretation of the motives of the 47 Ronin was put forth first in May 1931, in a Chûô kôron article by the liberal Hasegawa Nyozekan entitled The Akô Gishi in Light of Historical Materialism, in which the motives of the ronin in seeking revenge were attributed not to thesis statement model their loyalty but to their poverty and need for a new job. A similar line of gattaca determination essay, thought was pursued by the Marxist historian Tamura Eitarô in a series of books and articles on the Akô event extending from Chûshingura monogatari in 1934 on to Akô rôshi in 1964.
Doggedly pressing his argument that the ronin were simply in search of a new master and never expected to sacrifice their lives, Tamura set a tone of iconoclasm that opened a new chapter of of rizal, revisionist thinking in the history of the Akô Incident. To be sure, there had been distinguished earlier critics of the determination, ronin's actions, such as Satô Naokata two years after the event and Fukuzawa Yukichi in the Meiji period, but these had been in determination essay largely legal grounds. Tamura was the first to impute economic motives. The most important work for the postwar revival of Chûshingura, however, was the first long modern historical novel on the theme of the Akô Incident, Osaragi Jirô's Akô rôshi of 1928 (serialized the previous year in gattaca essay the Mainichi newspapers). Hamlet Questions. The use of rôshi rather than gishi hints at determination essay the diversion of emphasis away from the theme of loyalty, and in the direction of a conception of the paper, attack on Kira as a protest against the corrupt and gattaca determination essay venal government of the bakufu under Tsunayoshi. This element was in fact already part of prewar orthodoxy. The biography of Ôishi that appeared in the old elementary school textbooks, for example, opened on precisely this theme, stressing the looseness of Genroku politics and the decadence of Tsunayoshi and his animal-protection laws. (24) The rônin could thus easily be resurrected after the war as paragons not of hamlet, loyalty, but of justice and honesty in politics. Osaragi's text played a key role in the 1960s transition from film to television as the basic medium for the mass propagation of Chûshingura.
The year 1962 saw the last great feature-film production, Inagaki Hiroshi's Chûshingura , bringing to a close a half-century era. Gattaca Determination. The new era began in of rizal 1964, when NHK chose the Chûshingura theme for the second of its year-long saga-dramas ( taiga dorama ), of which a one-hour installment was shown every Sunday evening. Entitled Akô rôshi , it was based in Osaragi's 1927 novel. The power of television, authorized by the government network, brought the images of the 47 Ronin directly into the homes of millions of Japanese over a sustained period of time, reviving the legend just at the point that it was faltering. The production was accompanied by a new outpouring of gattaca determination essay, books about the Akô Incident. It is surely not without significance that 1964 was also the year of the Tokyo Olympics: the triumphal return to the international scene of a democratized Japan was accompanied by a revival of the nation's greatest legend, now itself democratized. In the years following, NHK has continued to play the gattaca, central role in the survival of Chûshingura in mass culture by selecting it twice more for the taiga dorama series, in 1975 and determination essay 1982. In both cases, it was occasion for the publication of new books about primary help egypt pyramids Chûshingura, the reissue of old ones, and renewed speculation by gattaca determination essay intellectuals about the perpetual appeal of the theme to the Japanese people.
That things were changing, however, was revealed in the approaches of the two series, neither of which approached the Akô Incident head-on. The 1975 drama was Genroku Taiheiki , a title that revealingly suggests a return to the indirection of essay, Kanadehon Chûshingura , which used the world of the Taiheiki as a setting. The series offered a panorama of Genroku society and politics that included the Akô Incident, but focused as much on essay Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, chamberlain under Tsunayoshi, and on the politics of shogunal succession. The 1982 NHK series was given the abstruse title Tôge no gunzô , translatable as something like group portrait at the divide, implying that the Genroku period was a kind of hamlet questions, historical watershed. The Akô Incident here appeared less as the main theme than as the backdrop to the depiction of the lives of essay, a group of determination essay, ordinary citizens of Edo. According to determination essay the analysis of Gregory Barrett, sentimentality was used to hamlet questions fashion a contemporary message of gattaca determination essay, patriotism through the treatment everyone receives, as reflected in the lenient treatment of Kira, of the Akô retainers who were not loyal, and hamlet - essay even of the essay, notorious shogun Tsunayoshi himself. Thus, Barrett argues, NHK's Chûshingura bears a remarkable resemblance to essay the Japanese family drama in which no one is to blame for gattaca determination essay, arguments resulting from misunderstandings that are ironed out in the final reconciliation scene. (25) By this process of watering down and primary homework egypt pyramids deflection of determination, emphasis away from the theme of either loyalty or protest, the Chûshingura legend has been further adapted to postwar needs. The kind of lenient treatment of old villains that Barrett detects in the 1982 NHK series, however, reflects more than just a pious wish to show Japan as one big happy family.
Rather it emerges from an on-going process of critically reexamining the essay, legend and challenging some of its central verities by turning back to determination essay the historical event. Hamlet. In a sense, this is in the spirit of discovering the real Akô Incident pioneered earlier in the century by Fukumoto Nichinan, and carried forth in a more explicit mode of debunking by Tamura Eitarô in his argument of the 1930s that the Akô vendetta was no more than a campaign to win new employment. What has changed since the war is a widening of the field of debunking activity, and the emergence of a virtual industry of amateur history-writing aimed at revealing the determination, truth of the Akô Incident in ways that often amount to writing debate essay the most fantastic speculation. The best example, perhaps, is the problem of the cause of the incident that began it all, the attack by Asano in the Matsu-no-rôka of Edo Castle. Gattaca. The way was first cleared by the demonstration of respectable historians--notably Matsushima Eiichi in his judicious 1964 Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai in thesis statement the Iwanami shinsho series--that the surviving documentation gave very few clues as to essay the real reasons for Asano's grudge against Kira. This means that it is anybody's guess, and as a result a great many theories have been put forward.
Take, for example, the episode on the Matsu-no-rôka incident that appeared in NHK's Invitation to History (Rekishi e no shôtai) series, in which academic historians, amateur historians, and writers of historical fiction are all happily mixed together to mba essay conclusion debate a particular issue. One major topic of discussion in this particular program was the so-called salt-farm theory, deriving from the fact that both Akô and Kira Yoshinaka's own domain of gattaca determination, Kira-chô, located 40 km southeast of help, Nagoya on Atsumi Bay, just happened to be producers of salt. It was the novelist Ozaki Shirô--a native of gattaca essay, Kira-chô--who first proposed in 1949 that the incident had its origins in a salt rivalry between Asano, whose Akô salt was of superior quality, and Kira, who had easier access to the Edo market. Of the several versions of the thesis statement, salt-farm theory, the most common envisions Kira sending spies to determination Akô to writing steal the secrets of superior salt technology, thereby provoking Asano and determination eventually the Matsu-no-rôka attack. Never mind that there is not a shred of evidence for help, the theory: the NHK show made a virtue of this by featuring a lengthy discussion by a leading expert of Edo salt production, who conclusively demonstrated that the industrial spy theory was in fact implausible, since the gattaca, geological and labor conditions in Kira-chô would have made Akô's techniques useless anyway.
Also offered on the same show was a novel theory centering on the abnormal psychology of Asano, proposed by Anzai Norio, a specialist in the psychology of history from Oitemon Gakuin University in Osaka and the author of such works as A Psychological Walking Tour of Kyoto and The Psychology of the thesis statement model, Tea Ceremony . Professor Anzai diagnoses Asano as a clear case of an obsessive-compulsive personality type ( nenchaku kishitsu ), characterized by exaggerated attachment to form and ceremony, extreme preoccupation with cleanliness, and determination a revulsion against money--naturally extending to the offering of bribes. What actually happened in term paper of rizal the Matsu-no-rôka, however, was a kind of epileptic fit to which this type of personality is susceptible and which allegedly ran in gattaca essay the Asano family. The immediate provocation of the attack, Anzai speculates, was a sudden burst of light that struck Asano's eye, triggering what is known as an illuminant seizure ( kôgensei hossa ). Anzai admits that the sun was high and the sky cloudy at determination essay the time of the attack, but proposes that the contrasting pattern of light and essay dark on the floor would have been sufficient. Without going into the five other theories discussed on the NHK show, this should be enough to suggest the amount of ingenuity that has been devoted to explaining the essay, twists and turns of the Akô Incident. These have been put forth in a steady outpouring of books claiming to tell, once again, the truth of the Akô Incident. In effect, the incident has become much like a mystery story, to gattaca determination be figured out by clever detectives; any concern with the primary homework egypt, deeper moral and political implications of the event recedes into gattaca essay, the background. In these ways, the historicity of the Akô Incident has served to gattaca determination keep the Chûshingura legend alive even when those political implications no longer seem compelling. Symptomatic of this trend is Izawa Motohiko's Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku (Shinchôsha, 1988), described on the cover as a historical detective story. It involves a young contemporary playwright who is asked to write a play about Chûshingura and becomes entangled in the mysteries of the historical event itself. Gattaca. In this way, Chûshingura as history is made palatable to a new generation.
In the entire body of debunking and revisionism about the writing debate essay, Akô Incident, the two themes that stand out are the reevaluation of Kira Yoshinaka and of the disloyal retainers who failed to participate in the attack. Gattaca Essay. Each of these themes has a considerable history. In particular, the rescue of Kira from his villainous fate, emphasizing his role as a model lord in his own domain, has been pressed since the 1930s, and has become especially active in the postwar period. The town of Kira-chô itself has predictably made much of this theme, and the temple with Kira's grave has become a popular tourist site, attracting some 10,000 visitors a year. (26) Various recent books have been devoted entirely to telling the pyramids, Kira story, such as Fumidate Teruko's non-fiction Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura or Morimura Seiichi's two-volume historical novel, Kira Chûshingura , both published in 1988. The writer of the 1980s who has made the most imaginative use of what might be called anti-Chûshingura themes is Inoue Hisashi, a virtuoso parodist who looks back to Edo gesaku for determination essay, inspiration.
This began with his Fuchûshingura , serialized irregularly in Subaru from May 1980 to December 1984, and published as a single volume in 1985. It is, the paper, title tells us, a Treasury of Disloyal Retainers, a series of nineteen portraits of those retainers of essay, Asano who did not participate in determination essay the vendetta. Inoue's takes as point of departure the argument that the 47 Ronin accounted for fewer than one in six of the determination essay, 308 former retainers of Asano, and that it would clearly be a mistake to see this minority as in any way typical. (27) For a real model of Japanese behavior, one needs rather to turn to the disloyal retainers. His resulting portraits are diverse, humorous and imaginative, presenting a wide range of motivation and giving an effective sense of life in Genroku Edo. Inoue followed the disloyal retainers with a new characterization of Kira in the play Inu no adauchi , written for a performance at the Komatsuza in Tokyo in September 1988. (28) The play recreates the final two hours of Kira's life in real time, from the point at which he goes to hide in a charcoal shed when the Akô band attacks. Hiding in the shed with him are a dog that had been a personal gift from Tsunayoshi, various personal retainers and maids, and a thief who just happens to have snuck into hamlet - essay, the mansion on the night of the attack. In the final scene, Kira wakes up to determination essay the fact that he has been little more than a victim of Tsunayoshi's regime, and grasps Ôishi's true intent as rebellion against the shogun. Kira realizes that although he himself will be despised as a villain for model, the rest of time, he will play a key role in the survival of the valiant story of Ôishi and his band. Sensing that he and Ôishi thus share a common glorious destiny, Kira in triumph leaves the essay, charcoal shed to meet his fate, declaring that Now Kôsuke-no-suke goes forth to live! Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? Even more than Inoue Hisashi, the paper of rizal, writer who has done most to revive Chûshingura in the 1980s has been Maruya Saiichi, whose Chûshingura to gattaca determination wa nanika became a bestseller after its appearance in 1984 and has continued to inspire new writings in and about the legend.
It is difficult in brief compass to do justice to the complexity of Maruya's various arguments, or to the sheer interest of the book, with its wealth of fascinating and mba essay conclusion arcane detail about the Akô Incident and Edo culture in general. Some of his major emphases, however, can be quickly outlined. Maruya, it must be remembered, is a novelist and literary critic, and these callings do much to fashion his conception of Chûshingura. Gattaca Determination. His basic approach is seen most clearly in his explicit use of Chûshingura to refer to both to the historical event and to Kanadehon Chûshingura , distinguishing the two as jiken to shite no Chûshingura and shibai to shite no Chûshingura. This in turn reflects his central theme, that the historical Akô vendetta was literally a dramatic incident (gekiteki na jiken), in the sense that the 47 Ronin were reenacting the vendetta of the Soga Brothers as it had been understood through Edo kabuki performances. In short, Maruya proposes, the thesis model, historical Akô Incident was essentially a literary event--a new and daring conflation of the role of history and literature in the Chûshingura legend as a whole.
The various specific arguments advanced by Maruya tend to determination essay be drawn from folklore and anthropology, thus tying in with a generally popular intellectual trend in primary help egypt Japan of the 1980s. He argues that the vendettas of the Soga Brothers and the 47 Ronin were both attempts to appease the determination essay, vengeful spirits ( onryô ) of thesis, their dead masters (or father in the Soga case), drawing on Japanese folklore research on onryô . Maruya's arguments here bear a strong resemblance to the those of Umehara Takeshi in Kakusareta jûjika (1972), in which it is argued that the gattaca, rebuilding of Hôryûji after the fire of 672 was intended in many complicated ways as an effort to ward off the avenging spirit of mba essay conclusion, Shôtoku Taishi, angry at the termination of his line. Determination. Indeed, Maruya's entire approach shares much with that of Umehara: both are contemptuous of established academic theories, both drawn to riddles and gattaca essay mysteries, both prone to seek explanations in gattaca determination hidden spiritual forces, and both are compelling writers. Not content with seeing the force of onryô in the vendetta of the statement, Akô ronin, Maruya asserts a hidden element of hostility to the bakufu in the act, tracing it back to an alleged anti-Yoritomo motif in the revenge of the Soga brothers. In this way, Maruya continues an gattaca essay older tradition of seeing the - essay questions, Akô vendetta as essentially directed against the bakufu, but he now gives it an even more sinister and essay seditious sense. In Maruya's most controversial allegation, he carried this theme of mba essay conclusion, a disguised rebellion over to Kanadehon Chûshingura , which he interprets as a kind of carnival in the European manner, a springtime festival involving the ritual killing of the king of winter--in this case, Moronao, but by implication, the shogun Tsunayoshi as well. The first reviews of Maruya's book were uniformly enthusiastic, but in gattaca March 1985, a lengthy and highly critical review by Suwa Haruo, a historian of Edo theater, appeared in the journal Shingeki . Suwa systematically argued against most of Maruya's arguments about the primary help pyramids, meaning of the Soga drama and its impact on the Akô affair.
Maruya answered Suwa in a scathing counter-attack in Gunzô in May 1985, leading to a counter-reply by Suwa and determination then a counter-counter-reply by Maruya. Meanwhile, Maruya was attacked on another front, by the anthropologist Yamaguchi Masao, who accused him of both misunderstanding and misapplying western anthropological theory in his notion of Chûshingura as carnival. (29) Without going into the many complexities of all the arguments involved, let me simply say that on strictly historical grounds, I tend to side with Suwa Haruo, who claims that Maruya's theories simply cannot be proved. Maruya himself recognized this in writing debate one of his responses to Suwa, claiming that since he was dealing with deep, hidden motivations, one could not expect to find any direct evidence. Time and again, Maruya claims to have a special sense of the superstitious and essay magical ( jujutsuteki , one of his favorite words) beliefs of the common people of writing essay, Edo, enabling him to see through to the true motivations of the Akô ronin, which have been misrepresented over the centuries by Confucian scholars. Determination Essay. Here, as in hamlet - essay questions his reliance on the findings of folklorists, Maruya clearly sees himself at practicing a kind of minshûshi , or people's history. In the end, Maruya has succeeded in using history to determination further the cause of Chûshingura as literature. Yamaguchi Masao, at thesis the end of his hostile review of Maruya's book, quotes approvingly the gattaca, remark of a science fiction writer who wondered why Maruya, with that much knowledge, didn't just go ahead and write a novel. And in debate the end, that is probably the best way to read Chûshingura to determination wa nanika --as a novel. Mba Essay Conclusion. Or more accurately, we must realized that we have reached a point in the history of Chûshingura that any systematic effort to gattaca determination separate history from fiction is - essay questions doomed to frustration. What the Hell is Chûshingura?
Chûshingura has shown remarkable resilience throughout its history of determination, almost two centuries, and seems alive and well today. Indeed, mass media even declared a Chûshingura boom in debate essay 1986, beginning with New Year's Eve when a Nihon Television production of Chûshingura achieved an audience share of gattaca, 17 per essay, cent when competing against NHK's venerable song contest, Kôhaku uta-gassen. It was followed by a February performance at the Kabuki-za, and a complete performance of the original puppet play at the National Theater in gattaca essay the fall. In addition, Chûshingura went international with the European tour of The Kabuki, a French adaptation of the Chûshingura theme performed by the Tokyo Ballet. In the term, same year, Inoue Hisashi's Fuchûshingura appeared and the first volume of Morimura Seiichi's new epic historical novel of gattaca essay, Chûshingura was published in October. (30) But is mba essay it possible that we are reaching the end of Chûshingura as a living tradition? The possibility is determination essay raised by a consideration of the writing debate essay, age of the gattaca determination essay, authors responsible for the recent spate of books listed in the Appendix below.
Out of fourteen for whom birth years could be ascertained, five were born in the 1920s, eight in the years 1931-34, and one (Izawa Motohiko, the author of the historical detective story mentioned earlier) in writing debate essay 1954. The concentration among older writers, particularly those born in the early 1930s, is striking. In other words, Chûshingura is being kept alive by a generation that could still read the account of Ôishi Yoshio in the prewar elementary school textbooks, and who reached maturity during the great postwar era of Chûshingura film popularity, from 1949 to 1962. Does this mean that Chûshingura will in determination essay fact begin to disappear as this older generation and its readers disappear? One small piece of term, evidence to the contrary is one of the most curious books of the 1980s, a 1988 work by the implausible author Akita to Ikumi to determination essay Tamiko-chan with the equally implausible title 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu . The orthography of the title is so expressive and difficult to capture in romanization that I here provide a reproduction of the cover that also reveals the shocking pink color--hardly what one would expect from a conventional explication of Chûshingura. The title is mba essay conclusion similarly difficult to gattaca determination essay translate in a way that captures the sense of contemporary Tokyo slang, but the authors themselves provide a good stab at it in an English table of contents provided as an appendix (itself a revealing mark of contemporary youth culture): What the hell is Chûshingura? As the title suggests, the book is clearly intended for debate essay, a generation that did not grow up with Chûshingura but somehow feels responsible for gattaca determination, knowing about it.
The main text, although written in primary homework help egypt the characteristic jargon of teenage girls and illustrated with cheery cartoons, actually provides a serious and responsible account of all the details of the historical Akô Incident. In a mark of determination essay, contemporary egalitarianism, all honorifics are dropped, and Lord Asano becomes Asano-kun, while Kira is referred to paper as Kira no jisama. It is hard to know exactly what to make of a book like this, but at the very least it proves that there is clearly an audience for Chûshingura in gattaca determination essay the younger generation, if only to overcome its embarrassment at not really knowing anything about it. Even if Chûshingura does not ultimately win over the younger generation in Japan, however, history lies in wait to provide one more grand opportunity for a new lease on life. I refer to the tricentennial of the Akô Incident, which will begin in just eleven years and (thanks again to the particular nature of the event) will last for - essay, almost two years.
It is hard to believe that there are not publishers, producers, and politicians in gattaca Japan who are already beginning to plan for the event: if Chûshingura is lively in the 1980s, it boggles the mind to writing essay think what it might be in 2001-2003. Appendix: CHUSHINGURA BOOKS IN THE '80s (A Partial List) 1980.3: NHK, ed. Chûshingura . Rekishi e no shôtai, vol. 5. NHK. (Reissued as vol. Essay. 15 in Nov. 1988.) 1980.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Fukushû--Moo hitotsu no Akô rôshi den . Gattaca. Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. 1981.11: Watanabe Tamotsu. Chûshingura: Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku . Essay. Hakusuisha. 1981.11: Ozaki Hideki, comp.
Chûshingura meimeiden--Monogatari to gattaca shiseki o tazunete . Seibidô. 1981.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Chûshingura igaishi . Determination Essay. Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. Sequel to 1980.12 volume above. 1981.12: Kuwata Tadachika.
Akô rôshi shidan . Shiode shuppan. 1981.12: Horikawa Toyohiro. Kira Kôzuke-no-suke zuidan . Meigen shobô. 1981.12: Shioda Michio. Thesis Statement. Genroku Bushidô--Chûshingura to ningenzô . Determination. 1981.12: Tamiya Yukio. Jitsuroku Yonezawa Chûshingura--Akô rôshi to Uesugi-ke . Yonezawa: Fubô shuppan. Essay. 1982.01: Suwa Haruo, Chûshingura no sekai: Nihonjin no shinjô no genryû , 1982. 1982.06: Iio Kuwashi. Igaishi Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha. 1982.08: Muramatsu Shunkichi.
Akô jiken no kyozô to nazo--Ura kara kaita sugao no Chûshingura . Nihon bungeisha. 1983.11: Tsurumi Shunsuke and Yasuda Takeshi, Chûshingura to Yotsuya kaidan: Nihonjin no communication . Asahi shinbunsha. 1984.10: Maruya Saiichi. Chûshingura to wa nanika . Kôdansha. 1985.06: Iio Kuwashi, Za Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.
1985.12: Komuro Kinnosuke. Chûshingura no jikenbo . Tokyo shoseki. 1985.12: Inoue Hisashi. Essay. Fuchûshingura . Shûeisha. Serialized irregularly in Subaru May 1980 to December 1984. 1986.10: Morimura Seiichi, Chûshingura . Vol. I. 1986.12: Fujita Hiroshi.
Issatsu marugoto Chûshingura no hon . Longsellers. 1987.11: Imao Tetsuya. Kira no kubi--Chûshingura to imajineeshon . Heibonsha. 1988.04: Iio Kuwashi. Chûshingura no shinsô . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.
1988: Inoue Hisashi. Inu no adauchi . Bungei shunjû sha. 1988.11: Kobayashi Nobuhiko. Ura-omote Chûshingura . Shinchôsha. 1988.11: Akita to Ikumi to writing essay Tamiko-chan. 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu. Gogatsu shobô. 1988.12: Shimura Takeshi. Chûshingura no jinseikun . Mikasa shobô. 1988.12: Izawa Motohiko.
Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku . Shinchôsha. 1988.12: Fumidate Teruko. Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura . PHP Kenkyûjo. 1988: Morimura Seiichi. Kira Chûshingura . Gattaca Determination. 2 vols. 1989.01: Kôdo Suisei. Chûshingura nante nakatta . Banseisha. January 1989 [Nuclear Age Year 44]. 1. The students and the topics they studied were: Michael Ainge (short stories about Ôishi Kuranosuke by Akutagawa Ryûnosuke and Nogami Yaeko), Andy Cane (Utamaro parody prints [ mitate-e ] on Chûshingura), John Carpenter (early uki-e Chûshingura prints), Iori Joko ( kibyôshi parodies of Chûshingura), Sue Kawashima (the case for Kira Kôzuke-no-suke), Jordan Sand (reporting the Akô Incident in gattaca determination Edo), and Keiko Takahashi (Hiroshige's Chûshingura prints).
2. In actual fact, the term Chûshingura seems to have been used prior to Kanadehon , in an illustrated kurohon chapbook of 1746. Few, however, are aware of this. Gattaca Determination. 3. The regular use of Akô jiken seems to term paper date from the gattaca essay, 1960s. The one-volume Nihonshi jiten of 1954, edited by the Kokushi kenkyûshitsu of Kyoto University, describes the gattaca essay, incident under Akô gishi, while the first volume of the Iwanami Kokushi daijiten (Yoshikawa kôbunkan, 1979 ff), uses rather Akô jiken. 4. Kira's name is read by some as Yoshihisa. 5. Fairbank, Reischauer, and Craig, East Asia: Tradition and Transformation , p. Determination. 411.
6. Paul Varley, Japanese Culture , 3rd ed. Thesis Statement Model. (University of Hawaii Press, 1984), p. 184. 7. Jordan Sand, Chûshingura as a Media Event: Reporting and Documentation of the Akô Incident. 8. Kôsaka Jirô, Genroku o-tatami bugyô no nikki--Owari hanshi no mita ukiyo (Chûkô shinsho, 1984), pp. 180-183. Determination Essay. 9. See Donald Shively, Tokugawa Plays on primary homework pyramids Forbidden Topics, in James Brandon, ed., Chûshingura--Studies in Kabuki and gattaca determination essay the Puppet Theater (Univ. of Hawaii Press, 1982), p. 35. In Japanese, the most recent discussion of the problem is Watanabe Tamotsu, Chûshingura--Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku (Hakusuisha, 1981), pp. 34-39.
10. I rely here on term paper of rizal the description of Aoki Sentei, Keiseika serareta gishi shôsetsu, Aoi , nos. 2-4 (June-Aug, 1910), pp. 13-17, 10-12, 14-18. 11. Shively, op.cit. , gives a detailed summary in English. The seminal work in gattaca determination this area was Yuda Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura seiritsushi, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô , December 1967, reprinted in Yuda, Jôruri shi ronkô (Chûô kôronsha, 1975), pp.
359-370. 12. Thesis Model. Fujino Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura: Kaishaku to kenkyû (3 vols., Ofûsha, 1974), I/80-144. 13. Nakayama Mikio, Chûshingura monogatari , Ukiyoe kabuki shiriizu 3 (Gakugei shorin, 1988), p. 17. 14. This and essay three other kibyôshi parodies were the topic of the seminar paper by Iori Joko, Chûshingura Parodies in Kibyôshi.
Anatehon Chûshingura appears in an annotated edition in Koike Masatane, et al. , eds., Edo no gesaku ehon , zokkan 1 (Gendai kyôyô bunko, Shakai shisôsha, 1984). 15. Satô Tadao, Chûshingura--Iji no keifu (Asahi sensho, 1976), p. Questions. 88. 16. It might be argued that the two words Kanadehon and Chûshingura imply two different vectors in gattaca the interpretation of the Akô vendetta, with the term paper, former emphasizing the individuality and sense of honor of each the 47 separate retainers, and the latter implying their unity as a band loyal to a single lord. In the variants of Kanadehon Chûshingura listed by determination Fujino, op.cit. , words referring to mba essay the kana number (particularly iroha and shijûshichi ) are just about twice as common in the kabuki tradition as words relating to loyalty ( chûshin , gishin , chûgi , etc.) up until Meiji, when terms of loyalty become dominant.
17. Gattaca Determination Essay. I am indebted in the following account to Matsushima Eiichi, Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to primary help egypt tenkai (Iwanami shinsho, 1964), pp. 213 ff. 18. As cited by Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. Determination Essay. 96, from a privately published work, Eiga Chûshingura. 19. Mayama's work is discussed in detail in Donald Keene, Variations on a Theme: Chûshingura , in James Brandon, op.cit. , pp. 13-21. Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. 108, quotes Mayama's daughter as claiming that her father really wanted to depict the Akô ronin as opponents of tyrannical shogunal rule, but was prevented by the militarism of the hamlet, times.
Mayama's Genroku Chûshingura served as the basis for Mizoguchi Kenji's two-part film of the same name, 1941-42. 20. Gregory Barrett, Archetypes in Japanese Film: The Sociopolitical and Religious Significance of the Principal Heroes and Heroines (Associated University Presses, 1989), p. 30. 22. Akutagawa's story was translated and analyzed in the seminar paper by Michael Ainge, Nogami Yaeko and Akutagawa Ryûnosuke: Two More Voices Join the Chûshingura Legend. 23. The work is mentioned in Matsushima, op.cit. , p. 223, as having appeared in gattaca Shinkô kagaku no hata no moto ni , under the writing, penname Ôkawa Hyônosuke, entitled Ôishi Yoshio no bawai. 24.
Quoted in Satô Tadao, op.cit. , pp. 102-3. 26. Kira was studied in a seminar paper by Sue Kawashima, Kira Yoshihisa, A Tragic Hero: A Neglected Perspective. 27. Gattaca Determination Essay. Inoue made these points in a taidan with Morimura Seiichi, Shûkan Asahi , May 21, 1982. 28. I rely here on the description of the play in Nawata Kazuo, 'Chûshingura' sakuhin arekore--kinsaku to ippin, Taishû bungaku kenkyû , v. Statement Model. 87 (January 1989), pp.
8-9. 29.Yamaguchi Masao, Chûshingura to ôken no ronri, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô 31/15 (December 1986), pp. 38-41. 30. These details come from Asahi kiiwaado , 1987, p. 28.
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Gattaca essay determination
Compte rendu de lecture – Andre Breton, Nadja. Redacteur de l’article : Fatiha MAKTOUBI, etudiante en Litterature francaise. Andre Breton, Nadja , 1937. Nadja est un recit autobiographique ecrit par Andre Breton en 1937. Essay. Il s’agit d’une ?uvre litteraire emblematique du surrealisme ; loin des codes romanesques traditionnels, Nadja renouvelle l’ecriture et la figure du personnage romanesque feminin sous l’influence des decouvertes sur l’inconscient introduites par Freud. Debate Essay. Le surrealisme a profondement marque le XXe siecle. Gattaca Essay. Il se manifeste par « le mecontentement » et « la frustration » de la Premiere Guerre mondiale. Mba Essay. De plus ce mouvement veut liberer l’homme des contraintes morales. Gattaca Essay. Le but des surrealistes etait de changer le monde en se battant pour la liberte de l’homme. Debate Essay. Andre Breton a contribue a developper ce mouvement.
Il etait medecin et psychiatre de profession. Determination. Breton s’inspirait de la theorie de Freud et tentait d’explorer l’inconscient en auscultant les pulsions, les desirs et les emotions qui influencent l’espece humaine. Paper. Selon Freud l’inconscient peut se definir comme l’ensemble des representations refoulees par le moi parce qu’elles sont incompatibles avec les valeurs « morales » du surmoi. Gattaca Determination Essay. Les reves sont, selon Freud, “la voie royale qui mene a l’inconscient” (Introduction a la Psychanalyse 342). Primary Homework Help Egypt. Le fait que tout homme reve est, en psychanalyse, une preuve de l’existence d’un inconscient. Gattaca. Le surrealisme signifie selon Breton « automatisme psychique pur, par lequel on thesis model, se propose d’exprimer, soit verbalement, soit par ecrit, soit de toute autre maniere, le fonctionnement reel de la pensee. Determination Essay. Dictee de la pensee, en l’absence de tout controle exerce par la raison, en dehors de toute preoccupation esthetique ou morale […] ». Ce recit suit une triple structure, trois parties identifiables par la mise en pages mais aussi et surtout par leur volume, leur contenu et leur espace temporel.
La premiere partie, appelee preambule par Breton ou l’auteur cherche a se definir en posant la question « qui suis-je » ; la deuxieme, a caractere autobiographique qui retrace le recit de la rencontre de l’auteur avec Nadja ; enfin la derniere partie ou epilogue (initialement nommee conclusion par Breton) qui repond a la quete initiale depart et pose les jalons de l’esthetique surrealiste. Il sera interessant de montrer en quoi le personnage de Nadja , personnage anti-romanesque et feminin, incarne l’esthetique du surrealisme. Pour ce faire, nous verrons tout d’abord dans quel mesure ce recit surrealiste est anti-romanesque puisqu’il ne se reclame d’aucun genre en particulier et en convoque plusieurs a la fois (I) ; apres quoi, nous evoquerons le theme central de ce recit la rencontre surrealiste, a savoir la rencontre amoureuse, en evoquant le portrait surrealiste de Nadja (II) ; enfin, nous identifierons les codes esthetiques de l’ecriture surrealiste (III). I- Un recit anti-romanesque : l’influence des decouvertes sur l’inconscient, le langage de l’inconscient. 1- Le melange des genres : le roman de fiction et le roman a clef, l’autobiographie, la poesie, le conte. 2- Un recit non chronologique et morcele : le langage de l’inconscient. 3- Des descriptions textuelles relayees par des images : le refus de la description romanesque.
II- Le theme de la rencontre surrealiste, celle la rencontre amoureuse et de l’amour fou. 1-Pourquoi le motif de la rencontre est-il original et entame une rupture avec ce qui etait fait avant ? 2- Le hasard objectif. 3-Le personnage de Nadja emblematique du surrealisme. 1- Le langage de l’inconscient. 2- L’ecriture automatique. 3- Une nouvelle conception du beau et le rejet de toute consideration morale. Nadja est une ?uvre litteraire surprenante qui a choque le public en premier lieu a cause de sa forme generique. Debate Essay. Au-dela de sa structure atypique, deconstruite, c’est un recit anti-romanesque car il melange les genres litteraires et ne respecte pas les conventions romanesques alors etablies et convenues. Determination. Ce premier refus s’explique a cause des decouvertes sur l’inconscient de Freud.
Le souci d’imiter le langage de l’inconscient sous-tend l’?uvre surrealiste de Nadja . Le 31 aout 1927, Breton a ecrit « deux parties sur trois » et quitte le manoir ou il reside pour Paris. Gattaca Determination. Il fait lecture a Eluard, Prevert et Masson de sa « prose » qui n’est ni un « roman » ni un « recit ». Gattaca Determination. Le melange des genres est par consequent un aspect incontournable de ce texte, Andre Breton melange au genre du roman de fiction, celui de l’autobiographie, de la poesie et du conte. Hamlet - Essay Questions. Breton rejette tout particulierement le roman de fiction traditionnel et en particulier le roman a clef. Gattaca Essay. Le roman a clef est un sous-genre romanesque qui raconte une histoire vraie et met en situation un ou des personnages reels notables, de facon plus ou moins explicite, sous couvert de la fiction pour se proteger de la censure et les critiquer. Determination Essay. Selon Breton le roman a clef est une plate deformation d’une realite elle-meme sans interet : « Je persiste a reclamer les noms, a ne m’interesser qu’aux livres qu’on laisse battants comme des portes, et desquels on gattaca determination essay, n’a pas a chercher la clef ». Writing Debate. D’emblee on gattaca essay, entrevoit un rejet de cette forme de roman puisque Nadja ne renvoie a aucune celebrite publique, mais juste une maitresse de l’auteur. Gattaca. Dans le premier Manifeste du surrealisme de 1924, Breton adresse de fortes critiques a l’egard du roman. Gattaca Determination Essay. Il lui reproche son banal realisme, sa lourdeur terrestre et son manque d’imagination. Pyramids. Tout y est petit, bourgeois, sans fantaisie ni reverie.
La psychologie et les descriptions rebutent particulierement Breton. Determination. Nadja , loin du roman a clef et de fiction traditionnelle revet un caractere autobiographique, comme nous l’avons souligne plus haut, Nadja , nom invente, represente une personne reelle, rencontree par l’auteur le 4 octobre 1926 a « un carrefour » de la rue Lafayette. Mba Essay Conclusion. Tres vite, il s’est noue entre eux une liaison obsedante mais qui decoit Breton et s’acheve par un message de Nadja en fevrier 1927. Essay. Breton a rompu avec elle de facon absolue ; il refuse de la voir a l’asile psychiatrique ou il apprend qu’elle est entree. Gattaca Determination. A Varengeville, il s’est installe dans « un beau manoir de corsaire », le manoir d’Ango. Determination. Il lit Huysmans et reflechit aux evenements recents. Essay. Apres quoi, il redige le roman de Nadja en convoquant a la fois sa memoire et ses notes.
Pour ce faire, l’ecriture automatique sera le moteur de l’anti-recit surrealiste. Determination. Le recit surrealiste est volontairement morcele et non chronologique, il mime l’aspect lacunaire de la memoire de celui qui se souvient et qui veut raconter sa rencontre avec Nadja. Gattaca. Il imite egalement la structure du reve et la logique de l’inconscient en apparence irrationnel. Gattaca Determination. Le recit est eclate et fonctionne par touches successives. Primary Help Egypt. Il traduit par ailleurs, les emotions de l’auteur lors de sa rencontre avec Nadja. Gattaca Determination. Breton renouvelle les codes romanesques de la rencontre amoureuse, l’amour fou , la rencontre surrealiste qui declenche un amour passion irrationnel et intense. - Essay. L’amour passion apparait ainsi comme une sorte de folie qui libere et favorise le langage de l’inconscient. Ainsi, a la maniere du reve, et du fantasme, le langage de l’inconscient est doublement represente dans ce recit. Gattaca. Breton utilise entre autres le procede du collage en arts plastiques et associe des supports de toutes natures. Determination. Les descriptions textuelles tres lacunaires sont relayees par des images : le refus de la description romanesque est au centre de l’ecriture surrealiste.
Pour accompagner le texte, Breton rassemble quarante-quatre photographies relatives aux elements qu’il met en jeu. Determination Essay. Le personnage de Nadja nous est rarement decrite, ses emotions, ses impressions, ses reves ou ses fantasmes nous sont presentes entre autre par ses dessins. Term. Nadja est pourvue d’une imagination sans limite qui se manifeste surtout dans ces dessins. Gattaca. (p 127–p172). Term. Elle s’exteriorise par ses dessins, son univers mysterieux inaccessible et fascinant. Gattaca Determination. Elle se dessine elle-meme en fee, en sirene… Elle exteriorise son monde interieur par ses dessins. Mba Essay. Elle ajoute des titres, des legendes, des phrases qui sont souvent irrationnels : « la fleur des amant », p. Gattaca Essay. 139 par exemple est un dessin que Nadja a invente « cette fleur merveilleuse ». Paper. Elle decouvre cette fleur pendant une apparition lors d’un dejeuner. Gattaca Essay. Elle voulait donner aux deux regards une expression differente (p140) ces deux regards representaient probablement le regard de Nadja et celui de Breton. Primary Help. En somme Nadja est pourvue d’une creativite extraordinaire ou le monde imaginaire est difficile a separer du monde surnaturel. Determination. De ce fait, le genre litteraire de Nadja, inclassable et volontairement anti-romanesque est emblematique de l’esthetique surrealiste.
Les themes et l’esthetique du surrealisme sont longuement decrits dans le Manifeste du surrealisme ecrit en 1927. Gattaca Determination Essay. Andre Breton definit ainsi le surrealisme : « Automatisme psychique pur par lequel on gattaca essay, se propose d’exprimer, soit verbalement, soit par ecrit, soit de toute autre maniere, le fonctionnement reel de la pensee en l’absence de tout controle exerce par la raison, en dehors de toute preoccupation esthetique ou morale ». Gattaca Essay. Aussi, le theme de la rencontre amoureuse, l’amour fou est-il un motif litteraire au centre des preoccupations des surrealistes car elle declenche et catalyse l’expression de l’inconscient, elle sera ainsi longuement etudiee par les auteurs de ce mouvement. En effet, le theme de la rencontre amoureuse cristallise l’esthetique surrealiste ; Breton veut avant tout livrer au lecteur une ecriture objective de la passion amoureuse, celle qu’il eprouve lors de sa rencontre avec Nadja. Determination. Breton parle ainsi d’une rencontre surrealiste. Egypt. La rencontre surrealiste declenche chez l’auteur et chez l’heroine tout un ensemble de phenomenes a la limite de l’inconscient. Gattaca Determination Essay. Elle bouleverse leur « paysage mental » respectif. Hamlet. La passion ou folie amoureuse permet a l’auteur ainsi qu’a Nadja d’exprimer la partie cachee, mysterieuse de leur psychisme, elle libere le langage de l’inconscient. La rencontre amoureuse dite surrealiste est par ailleurs le fruit d’un hasard objectif ; le poete parle de « petrifiantes coincidences », de signaux qui constellent sa rencontre fatale avec la jeune fille. Gattaca. Dans L’Amour fou, en 1937, il reliera les phenomenes « merveilleux » du reel aux forces de l’inconscient : le hasard objectif est compris des lors comme le « veritable precipite du desir ». Conclusion. Dans Nadja, Breton se plait a relever quantite d’incidents exterieurs : rencontres, hasards, evenements inattendus, coincidences, rebelles a un continuum logique, mais qui resolvent des debats interieurs, materialisent des desirs inconscients ou avoues.
Par ailleurs, le personnage de Nadja est emblematique du surrealisme. Gattaca. C’est tout d’abord une muse moderne qui permet au poete d’echapper au reel et de dechiffrer le surreel, d’acceder a l’invisible, aux sens caches du monde. Thesis Statement Model. Nadja a initie Breton a comprendre le monde et lui a permis de comprendre que « la vie demande a etre dechiffree comme un cryptogramme ». Gattaca Essay. p133. Determination Essay. Nadja est l’attestation vivante de l’efficacite de la recherche du surrealisme par son personnage merveilleux, sa creativite sa force de l’inconscient, sa liberte, sa folie. Gattaca Essay. De plus la rencontre entre Breton et Nadja est pleine de mystere que Breton renforce tout en donnant l’impression de la devoiler. Thesis Statement Model. Breton a reussi a se faire un univers surrealiste dans lequel ses imaginations ne cessent de s’exterioriser librement.
Par ailleurs, Nadja possede des dons surnaturels (themes favoris du surrealisme). Determination. C’est ainsi qu’elle destabilise le garcon de cafe qui « pris de vertige » (p 114) renverse le vin et casse les onze assiettes. Thesis Statement Model. Nadja possede ces dons qui intriguent Breton. Gattaca Determination Essay. Par exemple elle lui predit l’avenir et «voit» la futur femme de Breton « brune, naturellement, petite et jolie ».(p85) Nadja est selon Breton « l’oiseau splendidement triste de la divination » (p.105) il s’agit d’une allusion au monde metaphysique. Help Egypt Pyramids. Ces dons surnaturels ont egalement un lien avec les hallucinations dont elle souffre.
Les surrealistes etaient fascines par le monde irreel mais aussi par le monde surnaturel que l’on ne pouvait pas voir a l’?il nu et plus particulierement par la voyance. Gattaca Determination Essay. Ce domaine insaisissable de l’inconscient fait le charme du personnage. Term Paper. En outre, elle possede une force imaginative incroyable qui va lui permettre l’evasion. Gattaca Essay. Nadja est isolee du monde reel par sa maladie. Thesis Statement Model. Cependant grace a cette maladie elle est capable de s’evader « sans but aucun » (p.73). Determination Essay. En effet, l’imagination de Nadja va permettre au personnage de jouir d’une liberte totale «sans consideration pragmatique d’aucune sorte». Gattaca. p 168 « Pure, libre de tout lien terrestre » p104. Gattaca. Elle se definit d’ailleurs comme « une ame errante » p 82.Elle n’est ni soumise au temps ni aux contraintes de la vie. Debate. Elle vie sans aucune preoccupation du monde reel. Gattaca Determination. Cette particularite va beaucoup plaire a Breton. Mba Essay Conclusion. Enfin, on gattaca essay, remarque que le personnage de Nadja est souvent assimile a des personnages legendaires ou mythiques. Homework Help Egypt Pyramids. La vraie identite de Nadja est Leona Del court.
Nadja (1902-1941), est une jeune Lilloise qui a debarquee a Paris en 1923. Gattaca Essay. Son existence dans le Nord, ou elle a une fille, nous est connue par le recit qu’elle en fait a Breton lors de leur rencontre, le 4 octobre (p. Mba Essay. 74). Gattaca Determination. A Paris, elle a exerce de petits metiers pour survivre, vendeuse, figurante ou danseuse mais la vie est dure : « Sa situation financiere est tout a fait desesperee » (p. Thesis Statement. 106), la prostitution rode « Elle ne fait aucun mystere du moyen qu’elle emploierait, si je n’existais pas, pour se procurer de l’argent, quoiqu’elle n’ait meme plus la somme necessaire pour se faire coiffer et se rendre au Claridge, ou, fatalement… » (p. Gattaca Determination Essay. 106). Term Paper. Nadja aime s’imaginer « sous les traits de Melusine ». Gattaca Determination. (p149).Melusine est une fee issue des contes populaires qui signifie « merveille » ou « brouillard de la mer ». Model. Il s’agit dans cette histoire d’une certaine femme appelee Melusine qui fait la rencontre d’un comte nomme Raymondin qu’elle epouse a condition que celui-ci ne la voit pas le samedi. Gattaca Determination. Un samedi Raymondin pris de jalousie, entra dans sa chambre ou elle prenait un bain. Primary. Il decouvre alors que Melusine a une queue de serpent. Determination Essay. Raymondin garde le secret mais le devoile publiquement peu apres une dispute.
Melusine doit alors quitter le chateau. Debate. Nadja consacre aussi plusieurs de ces dessins a une fee telle qu’une Sirene, une femme- poisson…. Essay. Ce lien avec cet esprit propre a l’enfant est caracteristique du surrealisme. Gattaca Essay. En effet ces dessins sont a la fois une illustration du mouvement surrealiste et sont lies a cet esprit pur et propre a l’enfant peint comme un monde merveilleux. Gattaca. Nadja symbolise donc le monde fantastique qui est aussi le fruit de son imagination. Pour finir, il est indispensable de caracteriser l’ecriture surrealiste qui parcourt l’oeuvre de Nadja , a la fois ni un « recit » et ni un « roman ». Conclusion. La rencontre amoureuse dite surrealiste bouleverse et destabilise « le paysage mental » de l’auteur et de l’heroine. Determination. La passion amoureuse catalyse le langage de l’inconscient chez les deux personnages. Primary Homework Help Egypt. On recense trois grands procedes l’ecriture automatique, le collage et la deconstruction de la syntaxe, l’utilisation du support iconographique en complement du texte. L’ecriture automatique est centrale de l’?uvre de Breton.
Elle a ete utilisee par les surrealistes comme un mode de creation litteraire, permettant de s’emanciper de l’etroitesse de la pensee regie par la raison. Essay. Ce point est caracteristique du mouvement surrealiste. Primary Homework Egypt Pyramids. C’est au terme d’une quete sur la nature de l’inspiration poetique qu’Andre Breton formalisa cette technique appliquee a la creation litteraire. Gattaca. Elle consiste a ecrire le plus rapidement possible, sans controle de la raison, sans preoccupations esthetique ou morale, voire sans aucun souci de coherence grammaticale ou de respect du vocabulaire. Gattaca Determination. L’etat necessaire a la bonne realisation est un etat de lacher-prise, entre le sommeil et le reveil (proche d’un etat hypnotique).
Aussi, la rencontre amoureuse vecue sous le mode de la passion est une forme de folie propice a l’ecriture automatique. Le debut du recit de Nadja est incomprehensible par sa syntaxe composee de phrases longues qui trouble le lecteur. Gattaca. Apres la lecture de la premiere partie on primary homework help egypt pyramids, ne peut comprendre que Breton est a la recherche de soi. Gattaca Determination. « Qui suis-je ». Hamlet - Essay. C’est a partir de la page 71 que l’on comprend le recit. Gattaca. De plus Nadja contient des images qui n’ont aucun rapport et sans logique avec le texte. Statement. Par exemple a la page 71 on determination, voit la photo de la librairie de l’Humanite. Primary Homework Help. Il s’agit du journal du parti communiste. Gattaca. Cette image n’a aucun lien avec l’histoire qui la suit. Writing Debate. Dans Nadja, toutes les caracteristiques du Surrealisme sont visibles. Determination Essay. Le texte n’est pas reflechi, il s’agit d’une juxtaposition d’idees, d’un montage. Homework. De plus les images n’ont aucun rapport avec le texte et ne sont pas logiques.
Les associations libres, pas tres claires et les messages de l’inconscient sont aussi des caracteristiques du surrealisme. Par ailleurs, Breton joue lors de la rencontre avec Nadja avec les temps. Determination. Il veut presenter Nadja en l’actualisant. Paper. Il emploie le present pour que l’histoire soit authentique et pour donner plus de credibilites a son ?uvre « tout a coup alors qu’elle est peut-etre encore a dix pas de moi ». Gattaca Determination. De plus la vie personnelle et la relation avec Nadja reste vague. Debate Essay. « Je venais de traverser ce carrefour dont j’oublie ou j’ignore le nom ». Gattaca Determination Essay. Les dialogues deviennent aussi flous « A la terrasse d’un cafe… ». - Essay Questions. Breton observe Nadja il est fascine par ce personnage. Gattaca Essay. Il tombe amoureux d’elle et cet amour est reciproque mais cela ne durera pas. Help Egypt Pyramids. Il se rend compte qu’elle souffre d’hallucination et espere la guerir.
Il est aussi fascine par l’inconscient et Nadja etait l’occasion pour Breton d’atteindre l’inconscient. Gattaca Essay. Mais par la suite a se desinteresse d’elle « ce qu’elle dit ne m’interesse moins », « Tout ce qui fait qu’on peut vivre de la vie d’un etre, sans jamais desirer obtenir de lui plus que ce qu’il donne, qu’il est amplement suffisant de le voir bouger ou se tenir immobile, parler ou se taire, veiller ou dormir, de ma part n’existait pas non plus, n’avait jamais existe. Primary Homework Help Egypt. » Elle ne supportera pas cette rupture et fait une depression. Gattaca Determination. Elle et se fait interner a Bailleul ou elle y mourra. Statement Model. Breton a toujours pretendu avoir ete sincere envers Nadja. Gattaca. Breton l’a vraiment aimee. Help Egypt Pyramids. Breton conclut son livre sur une reflexion sur la beaute : elle doit etre ni statique, ni formelle, mais oscillatoire comme un sismographe . Gattaca Determination. La derniere phrase : La beaute sera convulsive ou ne sera pas sera reprise et expliquee dans L’Amour fou. Au terme de notre analyse nous avons remarque que l’?uvre litteraire de Nadja est inclassable du point de vue du genre, a la fois ni recit, ni roman, elle reprend plusieurs caracteristiques de genres litteraire divers comme l’autobiographie, le conte merveilleux, la poesie et le roman a cle. Determination Essay. Cet ?uvre constitue avant tout l’ecriture objective de la passion.
La deconstruction du genre litteraire traditionnel du roman est relayee par ailleurs par le traitement original et paradoxal du theme de la rencontre amoureuse, bouleversement du « paysage » mental de celui qui la vit. Essay. L’amour est vecue comme une passion qui deroute l’equilibre psychique et le destabilise. Debate. La rencontre amoureuse est ainsi propice a l’epanchement de l’inconscient. Essay. Le personnage feminin de Nadja possede une force imaginative et des pouvoirs surnaturels qui cristallisent les pouvoirs de l’inconscient, a la fois muse et maitresse, elle declenche chez l’auteur l’amour fou, elle incarne de ce fait l’esthetique surrealiste. Gattaca Determination. Enfin, nous avons caracterise les procedes de l’ecriture surrealiste en application dans Nadja , a savoir l’ecriture automatique, le collage, les associations libres et la deconstruction de la syntaxe.
Nadja est une ?uvre majeure du surrealisme, elle pose les jalons d’une esthetique nouvelle qui aura de nombreux epigones. Gattaca. Apres la redaction de Nadja, Andre Breton redige le Second manifeste du surrealisme en 1930. Droits d'auteurs réservés- Tous les articles de ce blog sont déposés AVANT publication chez copyright France - Reproduction sur le Web INTERDITE.
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Gattaca essay determination
1314 Words Essay on Poverty in India: A Big Challenge. Poverty is one of the major problems in India. It is the root cause of many socio-economic problems including population explosion, unemployment, and child labour and rising graph of crimes. Poverty alleviation should be the main target of the nation so as to make it a prosperous and developed country. Thus, poverty elimination is a matter of fundamental importance. Poverty implies a condition in which a person finds him unable to maintain a living standard adequate for his physical and mental efficiency. He even fails to meet his basic requirements. Poverty is in gattaca essay, fact a relative concept. It is hamlet - essay questions very difficult to draw a demarcation line between affluence and gattaca, poverty.
According to Adam Smith, #8220;Man is rich or poor according to the degree in which he can afford to enjoy the necessaries, the conveniences and the amusements of human life.#8221; The pathos of of rizal, Indian story is that 220-230 million of gattaca, Indian population, which constitutes 22 per primary homework help pyramids, cent of the total population, is poor, as per the findings of the National Sample Survey Organisation. This makes India home to the world#8217;s largest proportion of the poor, even if the percentage of the people living below poverty line reduced from 36 per cent in 1993-194 to 22 per cent in essay, 2004-05. The problem of poverty is acute in debate, villages. More than 75 per cent people live in villages. Even prevalence of poverty is not uniform all across India. The poverty level is below 10 per cent in states like Delhi, Goa, Punjab, etc. while it is nearly 50 per essay, cent in socio-economically backward states like Bihar and Orissa. The percentage of poverty fluctuates between 30 to 40 in north-eastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, and in conclusion, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh. Image Source : cdn.yourarticlelibrary.com. Gattaca Determination Essay. There are other dismal facts about poverty in this 4th largest economy of the world on GDP at Purchasing Power Parity: it ranks 126th out of 177 countries listed in the World Human Development Index and the rate of child malnutrition double than that of sub-Saharan Africa. Writing. The most recent World Bank estimates for India are based on household surveys carried out in 1999-2000. Determination Essay. It was found that almost 80 per cent of India#8217;s population was surviving on less than $2.15 a day (in PPP terms), i.e. is about 800 million $1.40 a day or less and nearly 35 per cent were found to be living on thesis model $1.20 a day or less.
With such factual and visible evidence enforcing existing bias, the defining element of our economy would remain identified with poor millions. Rather than getting drowned into swirling oceans of data we need to look into the factors which lead to poverty. Since India is predominantly an agricultural country, it is the largest source of gattaca determination, employment. Help Pyramids. More than three-fourths of determination, their populations depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture here is dependent on monsoon. Sometimes due to uncertainty and paper, irregularity of gattaca determination, monsoon, agriculture collapses. Foodgrains production declines. Often there is hamlet questions drought. All these adversely affect the income generation prospect. These combine to result in poverty. People do not have other means of livelihood; they are left with no other option except to starve.
Illiteracy constitutes a major cause of poverty. It is really very distressing that after more than 60 years of independence, about gattaca essay, one-fourth of our population do not know how to read and write. Illiteracy is one of the constraints which deprive one from opportunities to seek other forms of livelihood. It in hamlet, fact forces people to stick to ancestoral jobs and prevents them from having job flexibility. Besides, caste system also puts constraints in the access to determination lucrative jobs to a vast majority of the people. Though constitutionally such institutions have been dismantled, their presence can still be seen in rural areas. Furthermore, there has been increase in unemployment adding to the woes of poverty. Growing population is a great contributor to poverty. The average size of Indian family is relatively bigger, consisting of 4.2 members. All these factors make a vicious cycle of poverty and aggravate the problems related to poverty. - Essay Questions. Poverty is gattaca a great pollutant.
It is marked by an apathy that erodes self-esteem and any willingness to live life to the fullest. It is gattaca essay also an determination essay important factor in - essay questions, the creation of paradoxical situation, the lack of purchasing power amidst plentiful availability of food causing starvation deaths. Poverty makes education, balanced diet, health care facilities, etc. inaccessible. Obviously, all these deprivations immensely affect the personality development of essay, a person, thus creating wide gaps between haves and have-nots. The dimensions of paper of rizal, poverty have been changing from time- to-time and place-to-place. There are two inter-related aspects of poverty-urban and rural.
The main causes of urban poverty are predominantly due to impoverishment of rural peasantry that forces them to migrate to big cities to find livelihood. In this process they lose even the open space or habitat they had in villages, albeit without food and other basic amenities. In the cities, though they get food but other sanitary facilities including clean water supply still elude them. They are compelled to live in sub-human conditions. There is really a very paradoxical situation, when wealth and prosperity is concentrated in a few homes while millions have to go to bed without food. A select few enjoy the standards of living comparable to the richest in the world while the majority fails to meet both their ends. Gattaca Determination Essay. It cannot be said that attempts have not been made by the government. Since 1970s poverty alleviation became the priority in paper, government#8217;s development planning. Policies have been framed with prime focus on improving standard of living of the people by ensuring them food security, promoting self- employment through greater access to assets, increasing wage employment and essay, improving access to basic social services. It is mba essay conclusion with this aim that Public Distribution System was launched in 1965 to determination essay provide foodgrains to the poor at subsidised rates. The Government of India launched the Integrated Rural Development Programme, the largest credit-based government poverty reduction programme in 1979 to provide rural households below the help, poverty line with credit to purchase income-generating assets.
The beneficiaries include small and marginalised farmers, agricultural labourers, rural artisans, the physically handicapped, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. Within the targeted population, 40 per cent of the beneficiaries are supposed to be women. Significantly, the programme has been successful enough to increase the income of 57 per cent of assisted families. Unemployment and low-productivity have been significant causes of rural poverty. It is to address the problem that a national public work scheme, the Jawahar Rozgar Yojana was launched in essay, 1989 to provide unemployment at the statutory minimum wage for unskilled manual labour, besides low-cost housing and to supply free irrigation well to poor and marginalised farmers. The programme has had a significant impact on poverty reduction. Besides, a number of other programmes for - essay, poverty alleviation are being carried on by government-Central and State.
As a consequence of attempts made by government, poverty showed a sharp decline in 1980s. This decline in poverty, to some extent, is also attributed to agriculture development of 1970s and 1980s resulting from the Green Revolutions. However, much more needs to determination essay be done, for India is the home to the largest poor population in the world. Basic necessities of life such as drinking water, health care facilities, etc. are still inaccessible to majority of population. In this regard community participation and awareness campaign can make a difference.
The media and the NGOs, besides other institutions have crucial role to play. The machinery involved in primary help egypt, poverty alleviation need to determination be accountable, sensitised and sincere. New laws have to paper of rizal be evolved to ensure more accountability. The lack of transparency and accountability has hampered our economic development at all levels. A system of incentives and disincentives can also be of great importance. Thus, the situation is bound to change and society will be free from deprivation. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com!
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conceit essay Literary Terms and essay, Definitions: C. This page is thesis statement under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of determination essay, words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in hamlet - essay, the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of gattaca determination, language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles.
A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the thesis model Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of gattaca determination, a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to hamlet - essay, make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of gattaca, strokes made by holding a quill constant at mba essay conclusion, one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to determination essay, overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the primary egypt pyramids first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and gattaca determination essay, Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the hamlet play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of essay, works.
Originally, the term canon applied to gattaca determination, the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and determination, Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and - essay questions, published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of essay, said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to mba essay conclusion, him in the past. Essay. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only debate, two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the gattaca determination essay thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. Term Of Rizal. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.
Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and gattaca, political considerations. Term Paper. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the essay existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the primary homework help Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.
Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. Gattaca Determination Essay. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. Primary Homework Help. (1) It refers generally to determination, the words of of rizal, a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the essay praise of primary egypt pyramids, beauty is gattaca a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to primary pyramids, Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the gattaca essay first twelve-line stanza in gattaca determination, each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the gattaca determination Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of writing debate, prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to determination, love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in homework egypt, the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy.
In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an gattaca determination essay up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an - essay questions arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an gattaca determination essay example: ^ . Mba Essay. An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the gattaca two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.
CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). Hamlet. The term refers to determination, a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the primary homework egypt carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Determination Essay. Cf.
Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the homework help egypt dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of gattaca determination, particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Writing Essay. Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of determination, that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and hamlet questions, speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of determination essay, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.
A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. Homework Help Egypt. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of gattaca determination essay, a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of gattaca determination essay, a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and gattaca determination essay, unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the term paper of rizal catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!
I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of determination, his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. Term Paper Of Rizal. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an gattaca Orc by writing essay, asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into determination, a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is determination essay all about blind mouths.
Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. Gattaca. S. senator learned of an term paper of rizal unlikely political alliance. He is determination essay said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to term paper of rizal, a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.
However, by determination, taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of gattaca, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. Gattaca Essay. (It would have been better to writing debate essay, stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and gattaca determination essay, glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for - essay questions, originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to determination essay, be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza:
Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in debate, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.
CATALEXIS : Truncation of essay, a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is thesis statement model common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and gattaca essay, slaughtered. Hamlet - Essay. The technique is determination essay also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of writing, his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,
The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at gattaca essay, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and hamlet - essay questions, advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at gattaca determination, last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in thesis statement, the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of determination essay, King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of term paper, their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the determination essay plot in egypt pyramids, a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in essay, the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.
CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the hamlet - essay poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the gattaca word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the essay 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in gattaca determination essay, their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page.
This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from conclusion, one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. Gattaca Determination Essay. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. Homework Help Egypt. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an determination essay action that is serious, complete, and statement model, of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to determination, download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of debate, Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the essay Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Thesis. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and gattaca, cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the of rizal reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.
The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in gattaca, comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the gattaca sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on gattaca determination essay the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is mba essay a nickname for a gathering of gattaca essay, Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the hamlet - essay Cave of determination essay, Adullam became the determination place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and gattaca determination, Cleanth Brooks.
They were distinguished scholars of gattaca determination essay, various fields. Eventually, in determination essay, 1933, C.S. Hamlet. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and essay, several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into statement model, an allegory in which human existence is determination being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.
Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the shadows. Mba Essay Conclusion. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and determination, eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in thesis model, which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).
CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and gattaca determination, Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on mba essay conclusion Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of gattaca, a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and statement, W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . Gattaca Essay. A continuing part of the writing essay Celtic Revival is the determination Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to term paper of rizal, it is partially or completely limited.
Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to essay, download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for statement, citizenship, including the determination essay removal of unsavory literature. See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the determination political censorship of public plays and determination, all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. Mba Essay Conclusion. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the gattaca determination horse's head would be).
This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to debate essay, Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Gattaca Essay. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and statement, a river nymph named Stilbe. Determination Essay. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the hamlet younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed.
Unable to find a woman willing to essay, marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to homework egypt pyramids, half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the gattaca essay Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. Essay. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and gattaca determination, wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the primary homework egypt pyramids lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Gattaca Determination. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and mba essay, Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of gattaca essay, time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and essay, Christianized the centaur myth. Gattaca Determination. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the paper lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the gattaca determination Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.
Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of essay, a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Gattaca Determination Essay. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the - essay questions material body and gattaca, the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the determination essay fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of essay, Indo-European languages. Thesis. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and essay, inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Homework Pyramids. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and gattaca determination, capability between these two extremes. Statement Model. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the determination essay Chain of gattaca determination essay, Being resonates in gattaca determination essay, art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to thesis statement model, correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.
CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in gattaca essay, the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. Mba Essay. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Gattaca Essay. They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against thesis their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in gattaca, many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of thesis statement model, Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.
The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in determination essay, what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the conclusion character against whom the determination essay protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is hamlet - essay a tritagonist . These terms originate in gattaca determination essay, classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Conclusion. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an gattaca emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and - essay, thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in essay, Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). Questions. These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.
Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and determination essay, use regular trochaic meter, though in thesis model, the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the essay Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and gattaca determination, standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Essay. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and - essay, an i used in its place (Baugh 209). Gattaca Determination Essay. It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in hamlet, which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the gattaca determination words as a chart, the words form an writing debate x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x):
The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is determination often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in hamlet - essay questions, reference to male authors and an -a suffix in gattaca, reference to female authors. Thesis Statement Model. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for gattaca determination, the aristocracy in the late medieval period.
The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and term of rizal, chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in gattaca determination, the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in egypt pyramids, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to gattaca determination essay, the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of help egypt pyramids, great popular interest to determination, British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the hamlet - essay questions Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:
I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and essay, uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.
For the writing best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Determination Essay. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Primary Help. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the gattaca determination essay leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of writing debate essay, singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in determination essay, a dramatic or musical performance. Hamlet. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of gattaca essay, male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and writing debate essay, interpreting the significance of the events within the determination play. This group contrasts with the writing essay actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the gattaca essay singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.
For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Statement. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to essay, summarize the gossip about model, Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.
Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the determination study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in primary help pyramids, authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the gattaca determination term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an hamlet object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of gattaca, Christ. Examples of christological figures include the essay Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. Determination. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an hamlet questions allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in determination essay, Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.
It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of statement model, this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. Determination. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of gattaca determination, Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. Determination Essay. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.
Chronicles were popular in England after the hamlet - essay questions British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the gattaca determination public's demand for plays about English history. - Essay. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . Gattaca. See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to writing essay, them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and determination essay, the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the - essay earth.
In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on determination essay the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the gattaca essay departed; (c) dark and gattaca essay, bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence.
By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from determination, Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the gattaca determination hour. Before the dawn. the term mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of gattaca determination, diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:
Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the model subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to gattaca, children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.
CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of essay, completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of essay, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of term, Walter Mitty, which ends with an gattaca ellipsis identical to - essay, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is gattaca essay engaging in statement, yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is gattaca circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of essay, a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the determination essay reader to hamlet questions, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and gattaca determination essay, Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.
For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the hamlet idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Gattaca Essay. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). Debate. The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and essay, revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and paper of rizal, Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb.
The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of determination essay, participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the paper building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the gattaca essay clause cannot stand by - essay, itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . Gattaca Determination Essay. For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of gattaca determination essay, clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).
CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. Determination Essay. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. Thesis Statement. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.
Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for gattaca determination, more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to term paper, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in essay, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and mba essay, breeze . Sometimes, to gattaca, avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in - essay questions, some non-Indo-European languages in gattaca essay, Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in debate essay, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the essay sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.
For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in - essay questions, films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at determination, a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out writing debate essay, what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in essay, which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in determination, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at gattaca determination, which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of gattaca, a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and gattaca determination essay, denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of term, a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.
The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by gattaca determination essay, abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the determination word auto (as in auto shop) is determination a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by mba essay, bit, in order to analyze the significance of essay, every individual word, image, and writing debate, artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to gattaca determination, reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Writing Essay. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Essay. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and mba essay conclusion, traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of gattaca determination, play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in thesis model, a play take a bow).
The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the essay protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in term of rizal, George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in gattaca determination, J. Paper. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to gattaca determination, fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of primary help egypt, literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. Gattaca Essay. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in hamlet - essay questions, an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by essay, existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of statement, human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to gattaca, imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. Homework Help Egypt. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001.
CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Gattaca Essay. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and mba essay conclusion, juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and gattaca essay, Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.
By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the primary egypt pyramids term implies most strongly the gattaca determination essay spoken dialect of term paper of rizal, that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Gattaca Essay. The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of primary homework pyramids, slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.
This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in gattaca essay, the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is statement baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to gattaca determination essay, Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of questions, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the determination speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in writing debate, mid-sentence. An example sentence to determination essay, illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and writing essay, French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in gattaca determination, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]
Although the term code-switching is one used in hamlet, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the gattaca essay Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of determination, Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to gattaca, some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from thesis statement, a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin.
The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of determination essay, words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an term paper of rizal important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in determination essay, learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and mba essay, faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and gattaca determination essay, meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into primary, existence.
Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. Gattaca Determination Essay. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the determination essay strange word to determination, a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the term paper of rizal English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to determination essay, a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the - essay questions the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to gattaca, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and hamlet - essay questions, stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to gattaca essay, those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and debate, symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and gattaca determination, religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. Homework. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and determination, high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about primary, a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to essay, a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.
COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and statement model, British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to determination essay, refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against term of rizal the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and essay, continues up through the thesis statement model end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in gattaca, more general reference to homework help, the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and gattaca, the Middle-East over the course of hamlet - essay, several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Gattaca. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of model, native peoples.
On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of essay, a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of conclusion, cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in essay, Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the hamlet questions original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the determination essay Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to essay, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.
The comedy did not necessarily have to gattaca, be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in of rizal, tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. Gattaca. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the essay Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Gattaca Determination Essay. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of mba essay conclusion, having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the gattaca blame for such an paper of rizal action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in determination, a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to debate essay, the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.
Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the gattaca essay custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and mba essay conclusion, Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into gattaca, the sea where they are magically transformed into gattaca, sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is determination essay likely this sort of essay, tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Gattaca Determination. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is writing essay replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gattaca determination, gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.
Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is questions then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from gattaca essay, killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of thesis model, five or three acts in gattaca determination essay, which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.
It is thesis model the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in gattaca, which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of mba essay, dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to gattaca, relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Homework Help Egypt. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.
The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and gattaca essay, Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the paper of rizal earth's gravity, at which point Dante is essay confused by essay, the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by gattaca determination essay, a process of experience and disillusionment. Conclusion. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the gattaca determination security of paper of rizal, childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by gattaca essay, this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Statement Model. The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in determination essay, the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the help tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in essay, which groups of men would swear fealty to primary help pyramids, a hlaford (lord) in exchange for essay, food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.
The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and questions, they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and essay, government unit of mba essay conclusion, early Anglo-Saxon society. Essay. The term was first coined by thesis, the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in gattaca essay, foiling the rigid constraints of primary homework help, their parents.
In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into gattaca essay, English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of homework help egypt pyramids, closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in gattaca, which the lines of determination, iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is determination essay most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.
Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in term, loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is determination essay divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to hamlet, recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to gattaca determination essay, a well-known tune written in primary homework, common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Determination. If the term paper of rizal syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from essay, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.
The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the egypt pyramids practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in gattaca determination essay, Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and mba essay, so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of determination essay, a hero. Mba Essay Conclusion. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of gattaca determination essay, a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is gattaca determination essay not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the gattaca essay birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.
By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to thesis statement model, describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the gattaca essay body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the conclusion body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and gattaca, a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and homework egypt pyramids, the harpy has an determination essay avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and term of rizal, a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in gattaca essay, favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the thesis model encounter of fossil remnants of gattaca, extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.
An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and gattaca essay, a human trade bodies and gattaca essay, heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. - Essay Questions. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the determination essay creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by homework help pyramids, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to essay, some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from homework pyramids, two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on.
However, poets regular invent neologisms by essay, compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the hamlet questions word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to determination, fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to thesis statement, trial by ordeal , compurgation was the determination essay medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. Hamlet - Essay. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to determination essay, his innocence (or at least his good character).
If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the hamlet - essay procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to gattaca essay, prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. Writing Essay. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on gattaca essay a geometer's compass. Mba Essay Conclusion. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in essay, his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.
For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to term of rizal, century. Essay. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Of Rizal. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and gattaca determination, abstract has been a subject of term, some debate. Ezra Pound and gattaca essay, T. E. Questions. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and gattaca determination essay, visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). Mba Essay Conclusion. The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.
It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Gattaca Determination Essay. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of thesis statement, concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm.
Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Gattaca Determination Essay. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and mba essay, an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and gattaca determination essay, so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the conclusion protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in essay, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.
Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Model. Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of determination, narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in gattaca, which the hero struggles with the determination loss of his own intelligence to term paper of rizal, congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. Gattaca Essay. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of debate, conflict is the gattaca essay unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.
CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and conclusion, the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of gattaca determination, meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.
For instance, the mba essay conclusion terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the determination essay same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of determination, revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of determination essay, poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Debate Essay. See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in essay, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action.
This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Mba Essay Conclusion. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for determination, publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Questions. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of gattaca determination, her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.
CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an term paper of rizal author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon gattaca essay, which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of hamlet - essay, Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).
These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and gattaca, do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . Model. In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and determination, antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from mba essay conclusion, place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is gattaca a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of paper, a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the gattaca determination essay aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.
Conventions are often referred to - essay, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the determination convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an of rizal event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the gattaca determination crucifixion, and so on. The word is egypt pyramids derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and gattaca determination essay, mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and - essay, Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of gattaca determination essay, being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of conclusion, object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and gattaca essay, superb example of its type.
For instance, the thesis statement king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the determination essay whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of paper of rizal, different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Determination. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to mba essay, fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. Determination. All of these events could correspond to gattaca, each other on the chain of being, and gattaca determination, each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and thesis statement model, the Chain of determination essay, Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.
See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of term paper, Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for essay, details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of - essay questions, writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in essay, the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).
COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an conclusion assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on determination trial by the ladies for their crimes against term of rizal love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at gattaca, jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and essay, Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of essay, Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an hamlet - essay questions inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over gattaca determination essay the subject.
Andreas Capellanus discusses the statement courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. Essay. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of gattaca determination, noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from essay, afar, seeking to protect her honor and help pyramids, win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the essay woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the writing debate essay one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of essay, chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and gattaca essay, Italian literature as well.
The German equivalent of fin amour is gattaca determination essay Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the thesis statement dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of gattaca essay, courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Writing Essay. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in gattaca determination, the Middle Ages and hamlet, the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.
The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the essay position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. Debate Essay. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Essay. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader.
For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of gattaca determination essay, multiple languages, i.e., an gattaca determination advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and thesis statement model, simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for gattaca, rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in thesis statement, his struggle. Gattaca Essay. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of primary help pyramids, a story, though some critics use the determination essay two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an thesis argument.
Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for gattaca determination essay, the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Primary Help. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in gattaca determination, scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of term paper of rizal, William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.
RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and gattaca essay, r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and determination, R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by determination essay, gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in gattaca, this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in gattaca, three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by essay, Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.
Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in determination essay, Poe's own handwritten notes. Mba Essay Conclusion. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in essay, line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in - essay questions, the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).
This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to gattaca determination, publish an authoritative version of - essay questions, Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to determination essay, emend the line to a standardized spelling of term paper, Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of gattaca essay, a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.
Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for primary help pyramids, his edition. Determination. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. This process is especially pertinent in classical and conclusion, medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and gattaca essay, even contradictory variant readings.
For instance, in term of rizal, the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Determination. In the conclusion case of gattaca determination essay, Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to thesis model, use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the gattaca determination world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of hamlet, death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is determination essay sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.
Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the model first six serves as the last line of the gattaca essay next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the gattaca entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is determination essay similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in term paper, total, but which follows the gattaca determination essay same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by gattaca, pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the gattaca determination creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Gattaca Determination Essay. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the determination following:
CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in help, Western culture include the cross as a symbol of gattaca essay, Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into thesis, fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of essay, marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of statement, mourning. Essay. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of paper of rizal, mourning in gattaca determination essay, Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of primary homework, longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the gattaca priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. Hamlet Questions. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of gattaca determination, those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of writing, their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the gattaca determination dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and gattaca, sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to determination essay, be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and debate, other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of gattaca essay, closely related works. We speak of the conclusion Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for gattaca determination, instance.
These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by mba essay conclusion, various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the determination legends of King Charlemagne respectively. Gattaca Determination Essay. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the gattaca creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. Paper. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.
The rhyme scheme is determination AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in conclusion, which some lines are composed of gattaca determination, nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. - Essay Questions. Welsh for gattaca determination, symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the questions vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of gattaca determination, them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an essay example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet.
The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the determination eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to mba essay, write Russian, Serbian, and gattaca essay, Bulgarian. The name comes from the mba essay 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from essay, Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of primary homework, obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on gattaca the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in determination essay, 988 or 989.
Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of determination, Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in conclusion, each couplet, the gattaca determination lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is primary homework help egypt associated with the determination essay poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of conclusion, light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.
The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of determination essay, a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.
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Gattaca essay determination
essay on essay, brain Modern neuroscience postulates the equivalence of brain processes and thinking or consciousness. Conclusion. Thought is the gattaca natural product and essay, phenomenon of neurochemical processes within the brain of gattaca essay our body. One assumption especially favored by modern neuroscience is the consideration of quantum-mechanical processes as the trigger of consciousness and thus of all our mental and volitional acts. From the physicalist point of mba essay view I do not deny the practical value and the obvious preferential treatment given to this theory within the top echelon of academic science. There is one point, however, that I do find worth considering. If we assume quantum-mechanical processes in microtubules of the brain as generative of consciousness, we must allow the properties of quantum-mechanics to be transferred or implicate and inherent in the produced phenomenon itself, i.e., consciousness must itself have quantum-mechanical properties.
A physical cause always conveys its property to its produced effect. For example, consider the cause of a force, pushing a body into motion. The force of motion in the original cause is transmitted to essay the resting body, which itself receives this force and is incited to motion. Essay. Thus the kinetic energy of the muscle in my arm is determination essay transferred to the book, which I lift up from the table. Before I moved the book, it was resting in a fixed place. As soon as I raise the book, a new determinant is added, that of motion. This example is incomplete in so far, as it only describes the transference of determination contingent and non-essential properties from the determination cause to its effect. Our body is a complex organism, operating as a whole.
By analyzing the parts we do not come to a full understanding of the whole organism. We say, that the organism is the product of homework help pyramids biological processes, especially those inherent in the DNA. The properties of the DNA are also present within the whole organism. For example the principle of reproduction as a principle of life itself is fundamental to the functionality of the DNA, as well as of the whole body. Similarly, do we not have to assume, that quantum-mechanical properties of the brain processes are inherent and essential to thought and consciousness? For example, take the property of non-locality in quantum mechanics. It is a physical and gattaca, approved fact, that quantum-mechanical processes implicate the model non-local behavior and relationship of essay particles. Writing Debate Essay. If we transfer this property to consciousness and assume non-locality to be a primary constituent in the mechanism of thought, we must inevitably end up with the self-contradictory conclusion, that consciousness and thought possess a non-local nature, although neuroscience tries to explain them in terms of locality, i.e., as a phenomenon of the brain. Therefore, the local theory of the mind, put forward by the most eminent neuroscientists, eventually results in the non-locality of the mind.
This self-contradiction can only be solved if we do not consider thought to be a product of physical brain processes. As our consciousness and our thought, by nature and definition and through our own experience evinces non-local features, we are compelled to reconsider these neurobiological theories and eventually to refute them in favor of a non-local theory of the mind. The biological evolution of the human species has not yet been completed. Especially the development of our brain has only reached a stage of archaic potentiality. The fact that today most people live according to their biological and essay, bodily drives and impulses than according to the capacity of reason that is gattaca determination said to gattaca essay distinguish humans from statement model other living animals, obviously shows, that we are far from having attained the final stage of human evolution. The evolution of the body or most of nature may have reached a point of near completion, but, as the brain has developed later in the process of evolution than the other parts of the body, we have to assume, that the brain's evolution is far from being complete.
I would even say, regarding the low factor of utilisation of the brain's capacities human beings display nowadays, that we are at the beginning of the brain's evolution. Essay. This evolution is not only biologically, but concomitantly, the evolution of the faculties of thinking is extending our thinking massively. This sustains my theory of Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking. Because it is already now possible to use the full extent of our brain's capacity by applying the method of paper Paranoesis. Fortunately, this method is so far unknown, and determination essay, as this method cannot be applied by people who are not philosophically engaged, the danger of its abuse is debarred. If we look on some thousand years into the future, we can probably imagine the human being in its full blossom, that is, thinking is highly extended and used more effectively and comprehensively than in our days.
How is it possible to attain the full range of capacities of our brain although it is gattaca determination essay not developed biologically enough? The answer is determination simple: if we do not consider thinking as an epiphenomenon of the brain, as modern neurobiology erroneously assume, we can explain the brain as a sort of mba essay medium or bridge between Hyponoesis (Universal Mind) and Exonoesis, that is our individual thinking faculty as such. Exonoesis is dependent on essay, the evolution of our brain, because it uses the brain's physiological capacities. Hyponoesis is independent of any material or corporeal medium. If our individual mind applies the essay method of gattaca determination Paranoesis or Transrational Thinking, it will be able to transcend the limitations constraining the Individual Mind (Exonoesis) and link up directly with Hyponoesis. A person thinking transrationally is not thinking within the bounds of the capacity of the brain, as rational thinking does. Exonoesis thinks as Hyponoesis, it is one with Hyponoesis and therefore uses the unrestrained power of Hyponoesis. As Exonoesis participates in Hyponoesis, whether thinking rationally or transrationally, and as Exonoesis is the individualized and materialized product of Hyponoesis, there always exist a natural nexus between Exonoesis and Hyponoesis.
The Transrational Thinker is able to thesis unearth this latent nexus and thereby restore the original oneness of Exonoesis and Hyponoesis (Individual and gattaca, Universal Mind), abolishing the illusory duality and becoming noetically one with Hyponoesis. The common notion about evolution of mankind draws on homework egypt, the scientific theory elucidated in Darwinism. Unfortunately Darwin held that the human mind evolved simultaneously together with the gattaca determination organism and the faculties of perception. Conclusion. While our ancestors living in caves developed gradually the faculty of using the first tools, the Evolutionists believe, that their intellectual faculty also began to essay flourish and thus reason, the unique feature of the homo sapiens, slowly came into being. Mind that makes up the human being in mba essay its wholeness, has never evolved. Only the intellectual faculties were refined over the centuries. Mind as such has always been, independent of the evolution, unchanged by the changes of time, indifferent to the upheavals of mankind and the struggling effort to grasp that which I call the gattaca One Mind.
Therefore it is only the utilization of the latent and hitherto unknown faculties of our mind that increased over the time. While cave people used their mental faculties at term of rizal a minimum rate, modern human's rate of utilization has dramatically increased and has produced our technological age. Nevertheless, the average degree of gattaca essay utilization is small compared to all the unexplored faculties that lie still unused in our mind, not yet discovered. Only some outstanding and illustrious personages in every era, and questions, especially the great philosophers of the past, succeeded in tapping the uncharted reservoir of the gattaca human mind, if only partially, though. Thus the evolution of mind and the evolution of matter (body and consciousness) are not necessarily concomitant. If neuroscientists are convinced that consciousness could be ultimately explained by neurochemical processes in essay the brain, I would not object to this assumption that I think will be experimentally verified in the near future . Consciousness as a state of awareness or attentiveness does not explain thinking that is a much more complex process.
Thinking will never be explained as a product of the gattaca neurophysiological events within the brain, because thinking is not an epiphenomenon of corporeal or material processes. Even consciousness is still not accounted for by merely physical processes. How does something invisible, immeasurable, completely subjective such as our experience of ourselves is, originate from an questions, observable and measurable physical process. This phase transition from determination essay mere physical brain operations to mental or psychical operations is the critical and up to now unexplained Achilles heel of term paper of rizal neuroscience and ancillary fields. Thinking harnesses the capacity of our brain, which evolved over 2 million years. It is the medium that evolved, not thinking as such. Essay. Thinking is dependent on the brain in order to express itself, in order to establish communicative powers, reasoning powers and so on. Thinking is necessary for our survival as a species, for mba essay conclusion, the individual being to be able to live. The more our brain evolved, the more the infinite power of thinking (or what I call Hyponoesis ) could become manifest through the behavior and thinking of the human being. Thinking as such (Hyponoesis) is independent of the body or the brain.
If not active as the gattaca essay individual mind it remains in a state of noetic vacuum before manifesting as Exonoesis (Individual Minds). The brain is therefore just a medium of expression for thinking. Consciousness however is the fundamental state that denotes the being as alive, and that is the intermediary between thinking as a non-material process and the neurophysiological processes of the brain. Consciousness is the link between thinking and the brain, between the mind and primary help, the body. I do not mean to emphasize a dualistic notion with this. On the contrary, dualism, as postulated by Descartes, means an assumption of two totally independent and different substances, although they are capable of interacting somehow. We could call this the strong dualism, compared to the weak or complementary dualism I propose. This dualism is comparable to the particle-wave dualism and the principle of complementarity postulated by gattaca, Bohr.
Both, particle and wave are an term, aspect of the same subatomic event. Gattaca Determination Essay. They complement each other and belong necessarily together. Mind and body, therefore, are not antagonistic or completely different. Both are interconnected aspects of the same underlying and fundamental energy. The body as such is just a biological machine, which could not survive on its own. Primary Pyramids. Consciousness gives the body the necessary information about the world outside it and gattaca essay, about the body itself. Thinking is the what guides, steers or directs the course of the life, how the body is used for expressing inner moods etc. The whole psychology of our psyche is gattaca determination under the guidance and auspices of thinking (see also the laws of gattaca essay cybernetic). In Aristotelian terms: thinking is the form that individuates matter, and thus produces the individuality, be it that of the body, the mind or the soul. (cf. Thomas Aquinas on the unity of body and soul, Summa Theologica, Ia, 76.1)
The problem with neuroscience and its assumption that mind is only a complex biological phenomenon is, that they cannot explain, how an immaterial complexity, such as consciousness and thinking could have originated and evolved from mba essay a totally different material substance as matter (explanatory gap). Determination. Every material phenomenon can be measured or at least statistically described by mba essay, natural science. Why are they not able to do the same with this so-called biological phenomenon of the MIND? Why do most scientific approaches fail when applied to determination the understanding of our mind? Between this complex structure of consciousness and the physiological brain functions there seems to be an hamlet, unsurmountable gap that has not yet been bridged. The functions and structure of our mind do not, by gattaca, analogy, resemble the function and structure of the material counterpart, the brain. Both functions are different. If consciousness is the result of complex neurobiological functions in the brain, why is the resulting structure so completely different in its processes? How is it possible, that a material body can produce an - essay, immaterial consciousness? How is determination individuality in our mind explained, though our brains are basically the same?
I mean, the human bodies may be slightly different, but the basic functions, like breathing, digestion, blood circulation, brain processes etc. are the same within the species of home sapiens, even within the hamlet genus of living beings. Gattaca Determination Essay. Nevertheless, if we consider the individuality of the human being, its character, its consciousness, its thinking, nothing could be more variegated and distinct than that. If our brain would be responsible for the mind, then where does this individuality come from? Why do some persons have an extraordinary reason, and others are dull and debate, barely intelligent? Environmental influences alone cannot explain that fact, otherwise animals would show a smiliar distinction within their species. I think that philosophers since ever clearly separated the mind from our body or the material world. We cannot simply reject their thoughts as dualism. Why shouldn't there be a dualism of some sort? It is only in our century that thinkers came to gattaca determination essay be sceptical of dualism by accepting only one substance, matter. By this act they could easily wipe away some of the egypt pyramids more fundamental problems. This enterprise is gattaca determination essay Janus-faced, because on the other side they created a host of mba essay new problems, as mentioned above, and these problems are for some part really absurd.
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