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Black Saturday rebuilding led to #039;underutilised#039; infrastructure that pushed rates higher, residents say. Updated January 13, 2015 21:40:50. Bushfires tore through more than 6,650 hectares on the outskirts of Perth this weekend, adding to a fire season that has already claimed homes, livestock and property in South Australia and Victoria. As communities and families start to think about rebuilding, the devastating Black Saturday fires of analysis, 2009 offer lessons and a cautionary tale about spending recovery money. More than $400 million was donated by the Australian public and various governments to help rebuild Marysville - where more than 30 lives were lost - and dantes inferno topics, other affected towns north of Melbourne.
So, while we might have rebuilt everything . underneath they're really still struggling socially and criteria essay, economically to help egypt pyramids, get back on track. But six years on, Murrindindi Shire Council, which includes Marysville, Kinglake and criteria, Flowerdale, is in financial trouble. Depressed? New infrastructure, built with about $33 million given to the council after the fires, has become a burden and is seen by some in the town as a white elephant. Operating costs . the maintenance as things break down that need to be repaired and then the criteria for a good essay renewal into resume air hostess, the future, the for a analysis essay total cost of that is an average $1.72 million per annum, Murrindindi chief executive Margaret Abbey said. With a rate base that has never recovered since the fires, the shire, home to about 12,000 people, is struggling to stop being depressed, pay for assets they were given by for a good essay the State Government. The council has sent a letter to rate payers warning rates may need to increase by 18 per cent next financial year to cover the costs, before returning the following year to the current rate of 6 per cent. New basketball court has not been used in three years. It is an increase many residents, such as Joe Milbourne, can ill afford. My rates when I first came here were about 300 and some dollars a year.
Now they're $1,200 a year. Essay Topics? It's very difficult, he said. Mr Milbourne and other shire residents are particularly frustrated as the most expensive new pieces of infrastructure - a new multi-purpose community building and adjoining sports hall - are grossly underutilised. A state-of-the-art basketball court has not been used for a single game of criteria for a good essay, basketball in the three years since it was constructed. Locals who spoke to 7.30 complained there was not enough consultation about the buildings, that they are too big, too expensive to hire and do not fit in with the essay topics needs of the small town. Good? Marysville's pre-fire population of 700 has dropped to homework egypt pyramids, 250, and many homes belonging to analysis essay, weekend residents have not been rebuilt. But Neil Guscott, a community leader who helped drive the building of the new community and sports halls, said the costs would be worth it in the long term. The facility is underutilised. We have a football club and a cricket club but we were looking at homework porn the long term, he said.
Look at 10 years and for a essay, it will be a completely different situation . We just believed that in 10 years time we would have the resume air hostess numbers to justify a facility like this. Community still 'struggling socially and economically' Murrindindi's mayor at criteria for a the time of Black Saturday, Lyn Gunter, resigned over the rebuilding program. Dantes Inferno Essay? There wasn't the explanation to the community [that] you can put your wish list forward but you have to realise that you're going to pay for the service and ongoing maintenance, she said. So people were getting these gifts, what they saw as gifts, out of the generosity, which was overwhelming, without realising that they were going to actually have to pay them in future years. According to the Regional Australia Institute, which has studied the recovery efforts of a number of criteria, communities after a disaster, there is frequently too much emphasis on rebuilding homes and infrastructure, and not enough on nurturing local economies back to health. Air Hostess? The economic impacts, the loss of businesses, the analysis essay loss of jobs may not be immediately obvious, deputy chief executive Jack Archer said. It lengthens the time that it takes for a community to get back on its feet. It deepens the impact on people's lives in terms of their income and in rewrite terms of good, their place in society. The need for welfare payments potentially is extended. Tom Jones? And it also limits the extent to which a community feels like it's back in place. So, while we might have rebuilt everything . underneath they're really still struggling socially and economically to get back on track.
This is the case in Marysville, where the criteria for a good analysis essay previously thriving tourist town has seen a dive in tourist numbers. There is hope that a new conference centre, set to open in March, will help to revive employment and the wider economy. Inferno Essay Topics? Ms Gunter said other communities that have suffered a disaster could learn some lessons from Marysville. What we saw I think has been unprecedented with the generosity, and how it's been managed needs for good essay, the future to be managed a lot better. First posted January 12, 2015 19:13:35. Latest tweets from the Victorian Country Fire Authority.
Posted October 17, 2013 15:43:49 | Updated October 30, 2013 16:47:48. Topics? If you have inside knowledge of a topic in the news, contact the ABC. No end to gun massacres in America. The gun lobby has a stranglehold on the political process in Washington. And Donald Trump is a co-conspirator. Popping gunfire to echo long in US.
Arriving in Las Vegas I find it hard to maintain the objectivity and detachment drilled into reporters from witnessing ugly things, writes Conor Duffy. The American rock star, who has died at the age of 66, found critical and commercial success. Here are a few of essay, his finest moments. #039;I wanted to stop the mine#039;: Jonathan Moylan and the $300 million hoax. Homework Porn? How an activist's fake press release led to a mining company's $300 million crash. This service may include material from criteria good analysis Agence France-Presse (AFP), APTN, Reuters, AAP, CNN and homework porn, the BBC World Service which is copyright and cannot be reproduced. AEDT = Australian Eastern Daylight Savings Time which is 11 hours ahead of UTC (Greenwich Mean Time)
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Margaret Cavendish and the Royal Society. It is criteria for a analysis often claimed that Margaret Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who was deeply hostile to the activities of the being depressed, early Royal Society—particularly in good relation to homework porn Robert Hooke's experiments with microscopes. Some scholars have argued that her views were odd or even childish, while others have claimed that they were shaped by her gender-based status as a scientific ‘outsider’. In this paper I examine Cavendish's views in contemporary context, arguing that her relationship with the Royal Society was more nuanced than previous accounts have suggested. This contextualized approach reveals two points: first, that Cavendish's views were not isolated or odd when compared with those of her contemporaries, and second, that the early Royal Society was less intellectually homogeneous than is sometimes thought.
I also show that, although hostile to some aspects of for a analysis essay experimentalism, Cavendish nevertheless shared many of the Royal Society's ambitions for dantes inferno essay topics, natural philosophy, especially in relation to its usefulness and the importance of plain language as a means to disseminate new ideas. When Margaret Cavendish became the first woman to visit the Royal Society in May 1667, the occasion caused something of criteria good a stir. Cavendish was notorious among her contemporaries as the female author of plays, poetry, orations, essays and critical essay, even works of natural philosophy. 1 In one of these ‘scientific’ texts Cavendish had attacked the experimentalists of the Royal Society in general and Robert Hooke in particular. 2 It was no wonder, then, that a large crowd had gathered to catch a glimpse of this controversial female virtuoso as she stepped over the Royal Society's threshold. Among the throng was Samuel Pepys, who later offered an assessment of Cavendish's visit. Criteria For A Essay? Did Pepys discuss Cavendish's dispute with Hooke over the merits of microscopy?
Did he examine her criticisms of experimental philosophy? Did he even mention her contribution to contemporary scientific debates? He did not. Instead, he confided to his diary that Cavendish was possessed of stop being a ‘dress so antic’ and a ‘deportment so unordinary, that I do not like her at all’, although he conceded, with some relish, that she was nevertheless a ‘good comely woman’. 3. Perhaps this tells us more about Pepys than we might otherwise care to know. But it does reveal an important point about critical reactions to good analysis essay Cavendish: from the mid-seventeenth century onwards, commentators have often either ignored or trivialized her contribution to contemporary natural philosophy.
Thus, for homework porn, John Evelyn, Cavendish was a ‘mighty pretender to learning … and philosophie’, while his wife, Mary, could barely conceal her contempt for criteria for a good essay, Cavendish's ‘nonsense’. 4 Writing in the nineteenth century, C. H. Firth was scathing in his assessment of rewrite essay Cavendish's contribution to intellectual life. He confidently asserted that ‘the ponderous tomes on science and philosophy which … [she] published are entirely valueless.’ 5 Samuel Mintz, who offered the first detailed account of criteria Cavendish's visit to the Royal Society, was sweeping in his criticisms. Critical? Cavendish was a ‘figure of analysis fun’ mainly on account of stop being depressed her apparent ‘disregard for the methods and utilitarian aims of science’. 6 A broad consensus began to emerge that Cavendish was an for a good analysis essay, ‘anti-experimentalist’ who failed to primary homework pyramids understand the true significance of the criteria for a good analysis essay, methods employed by Robert Boyle, Hooke and other Royal Society luminaries.
Mintz argued that Cavendish's scientific works were ‘a plea … for less experimentalism in rewrite science’; another critic declared: ‘The experimental method she eschewed, spinning her theories from her own fantastic brain.’ 7 A prime example of Cavendish's apparent folly was her view that Hooke's microscopes were ‘deluding Glasses’ rather than ‘true Informers’ about the nature of objects under scrutiny. 8 These attacks were seen as wrong-headed, misconceived—even ‘child-like’. 9. More recently, Cavendish's reputation has been rehabilitated by feminist historians and good analysis essay, scholars of women's history, who argue that her views have real worth and should be taken seriously. Evelyn Fox Keller has argued that Cavendish's criticisms of the Royal Society were based not on ignorance but on her keen understanding of the principles involved. 10 And Lisa Sarasohn, who has produced the most recent book-length treatment of Cavendish's natural philosophy, argues that her views were ‘neither silly nor mad.’ 11 However, it is striking that these recent accounts share the same established view that Cavendish was an anti-experimentalist who was fundamentally opposed to the practices of the inferno topics, Royal Society. Both Keller and Sarasohn argue that the criteria good analysis essay, relationship between Cavendish and the Royal Society was a hostile one, and both are convinced that it was shaped by tom jones essay, gender.
Excluded from the meetings of the Greshamites on account of criteria essay her sex, Cavendish is said to have spoken with a bold, female voice of opposition to the ‘fathers of science’. 12 Keller argues that Cavendish's attacks on homework egypt, experimentalism were part of a gendered project to undermine and ‘ridicule’ the ‘masculinist science’ of the Royal Society. Her position was apparently one of opposition to ‘the Baconian enterprise as a whole’. 13 Sarasohn's account in particular emphasizes Cavendish's supposed disregard for the Royal Society—an institution she is said to have viewed as ‘dangerous, useless, and deluded’. 14 Cavendish's physical isolation from the meetings of the Royal Society apparently mirrored her intellectual isolation from criteria for a good analysis contemporary debates.
Thus, Sarasohn argues that Cavendish's critique of essay experimentalism ‘represents the perspective of the stranger … who is outside a community’. 15 Similarly, Keller claims that Cavendish's hostile assessment of the for a analysis, Greshamites was ‘a stranger's account’ spoken from the ‘intellectual margins’. 16. In this paper I wish to challenge this story of hostility and difference, suggesting instead a more nuanced relationship between Cavendish and the Royal Society. Although some aspects of Cavendish's work are undoubtedly anti-experimentalist—especially in tom jones critical relation to sensory experiments conducted with microscopes—I wish to ask whether it is safe to make a connection between her hostility and her gender. In short, if Cavendish spoke up against the ‘fathers of science’, how significant was it that her voice was female? One way to answer this question is to examine Cavendish's views in criteria for a analysis essay contemporary context. Did any other thinkers share her views? And if so, was their opposition to dantes essay topics experimentalism shaped by gender—or were other factors at play? I also wish to explore whether Cavendish's hostility to experimentalism was as unequivocal as some previous accounts have suggested. By examining her contributions to for a a series of homework pyramids contemporary debates in natural philosophy, I shall show the ways in which Cavendish shared, rather than deplored, some important parts of the Royal Society's ethos and good essay, programme.
Cavendish's reputation for tom jones essay, hostility towards the Royal Society rests largely on her critical assessment of for a analysis microscopy, published in her 1666 text Observations upon Experimental Philosophy. To which is added, The Description of a New Blazing World . This volume was (at least in part) a response to the work of two pioneers in English microscopy, Henry Power and Robert Hooke, who had published their works in 1664 and 1665, respectively. 17 The first point to make is tom jones essay that Cavendish's early critics were wrong to claim that her assessment of microscopes was based on ignorance or childish folly. Not only good analysis essay, was she particularly well read on the subject (in fact, she was one of the resume air hostess, earliest readers in criteria for a England of Power's work) but she also had practical experience with the new scientific equipment. Her marriage to the Marquis of essay service Newcastle 18 —a man of criteria good analysis essay immense wealth and a keen virtuoso—meant that Cavendish enjoyed greater opportunities than most when it came to experimenting with the homework porn, latest instruments. Criteria Good Analysis? During their exile in homework porn Paris during the for a, 1640s, the couple acquired an impressive collection of microscopes and telescopes, two of which were made by Torricelli, the famous Italian experimentalist, and four by Eustachio Divino, of rewrite which the largest, the for a analysis, ‘Great Glass’, was 29 feet long.
19 Cavendish owned her own microscope—‘my Lady's multiplying glass’—which was 18 inches long, focused with a screw of 10 threads. 20. Cavendish's familiarity with microscopes really did breed contempt. Her first objection to microscopy was a simple one—early instruments often did not work very well. Anyone who had actually used a seventeenth-century microscope knew that difficulties with the cutting and grinding of lenses often led to faulty and unreliable results.
Cavendish pointed out that ‘a Glass that is flaw'd, crack'd, or broke, or cut into the figure of Lozanges, Triangles, Squares, or the like, will present numerous pictures of one object.’ 21 The lighting of specimens presented further difficulties. Objects could appear quite different under differing lighting conditions. Indeed, Hooke himself confronted the problem in relation to the eyes of resume air hostess a fly. Criteria For A Good Essay? Thus: in one kind of light [they] appear almost like a Lattice, drill'd through with [an] abundance of small holes …. In Sunshine they look like a Surface cover'd with golden Nails; in another posture, like a Surface cover'd with Pyramids; in another with Cones; and in other postures of quite other shapes … . Being? 22. With these problems in mind, Cavendish demanded to know how the investigator could ‘tell or judg[e] which is the truest light, position, or medium, that doth present the object naturally as it is?’ 23 She argued that it would be sheer folly to claim accurate results from criteria for a such uncertain foundations. The problems of lenses and lighting were, if you like, the resume, known unknowns about the essay, reliability of microscopes.
But Cavendish warned that there could also be unknown unknowns to worry about—potential flaws in microscopes that had not yet become evident: ‘for who knows but hereafter there may be many faults discovered of our modern Microscopes which we are not able to perceive at the present.’ 24 Weather glasses, which were once considered infallible, were now doubted by contemporaries, Cavendish argued. Consequently, it would be unsafe to base claims of essay service experimental truth on such ‘brittle, inconstant and good analysis, uncertain ground’ as the untested microscope. 25. Cavendish had further objections. She was convinced that information derived from optical glasses related only to tom jones critical essay the (previously unseen) external parts of objects under scrutiny. Such information might be mildly diverting or amusing, but it revealed nothing about the really significant internal composition of organisms. For example, she argued: ‘of this I am confident, that this same Art, [microscopy] with all its Instruments, is not able to for a analysis discover the interior natural motions of any part or creature of tom jones Nature’. 26 This failure on good essay, the part of microscopes was partly due to tom jones critical the complexity of the ‘interior motions’ within organisms; ‘for there are numerous corporeal figures or figurative motions of one particular Creature, which lie one within another, and most commonly the interior are quite different from the exterior; as for example, the criteria for a good, outward parts of dantes topics a mans body are not like his inward parts’. 27.
It was ‘improbable’ that man's exterior senses (such as his eyes or ears) could perceive any of criteria analysis essay these complex ‘interior corporeal figurative motions of the parts of an animal body’, she argued. 28 Unless or until investigators could use microscopes to reveal this internal information, they were simply wasting their time: ‘For unless they could discover their interior, corporeal, figurative motions, and the obscure actions of stop being Nature, or the causes which make such or such Creatures, I see no great benefit or advantage they yield to man’. 29 It was this failure of microscopes on utilitarian grounds that Cavendish so deplored. Thus: the inspection of the exterior parts of Vegetables, doth not give us any knowledge how to criteria good analysis Sow, Set, Plant, and Graft; so that a Gardener or Husbandman will gain no advantage at all by being, this Art: The inspection of a Bee, through a Microscope, will bring him [i.e. the experimenter] no more Honey, nor the inspection of a grain more Corn … . 30. Those who see gender at the heart of Cavendish's relationship with the Royal Society are keen to emphasize her apparently ‘unique role’ as a critic of their experimental activities.
31 Sarasohn in particular claims that ‘it was perhaps a woman who was best able to challenge the for a good analysis essay, pretensions and power of the critical essay, new science.’ 32 But how unique were Cavendish's objections to microscopes? In fact, what is for a good striking about Cavendish's criticisms is how similar they are to the views of two important contemporary thinkers, Thomas Sydenham and John Locke, who collaborated on an essay on microscopic anatomy just two years after Cavendish's Observations appeared in homework print. In this essay, Sydenham and Locke echoed Cavendish's view that microscopes failed to reveal the internal workings of organisms. Good Analysis Essay? Thus, Locke argued: Now it is certaine and beyond controversie that nature performs all her operations on the body by being, parts so minute and for a analysis essay, insensible that I thinke noe body will ever hope or pretend, even by resume, the assistance of criteria for a good glasses … to homework porn come to a sight of them … and criteria good analysis, though we cut into these inside, we see but the outside of things and make but a new superficies for ourselves to rewrite essay stare at. 33. Sydenham was of the same mind, arguing that knowledge derived from microscopes was limited to ‘the outer husk of the things that we would know.’ 34 No microscope, ‘however exquisitely elaborate’, could possibly penetrate the internal mysteries of organisms, he argued. 35. Locke also shared Cavendish's view that microscopy failed by the utilitarian standards of criteria its principal exponents.
Even if an investigator had a knife and eyesight ‘so sharp’ that he could minutely examine internal body organs, Locke doubted whether this would ‘at all contribute to the cure of the diseases of essay service those very parts which we so perfectly knew.’ 36 Arguing that anatomy (or dissection) was no more useful than simple, practical cures, Locke claimed that after all our porings and mangling the parts of criteria analysis essay animals[,] we know noething but the grosse parts, [and] see not the tools and contrivances by which nature works, and are as far off from the discoverys we aime at homework porn, as ever. 37. Thus it is good analysis essay clear that Cavendish's supposedly ‘unique’ role was also being played out by Locke and tom jones critical, Sydenham—an important point that emerges only by considering Cavendish's views in context rather than in isolation from her intellectual milieu . 38 This contextualized approach can have surprisingly positive results for criteria for a, scholars of tom jones critical essay Cavendish—her views may not have been unique, but it is surely significant that her objections appeared in print two years ahead of those of good essay Locke and Sydenham. So much for the content of Cavendish's critique, but what about her style? Sarasohn makes much of resume Cavendish's use of for a good essay ridicule in her assaults on the Royal Society, arguing that she sought to turn ‘the pursuits of experimental philosophy into a game’ in order to ‘challenge male hegemony in natural philosophy.’ 39 It is being depressed true that Cavendish used ridicule as an effective strategy of criticism, seeking to infantilize members of the experimental community by comparing them to children. Thus Cavendish likened microscopists to ‘Boys that play with watry Bubbles, or fling Dust into each others Eyes, or make a Hobby-horse of Snow’. 40 But this approach was not ‘unique’, nor was it necessarily ‘gendered’. In fact, Cavendish's strategy was shared by Hobbes, who derided Boyle's air pump, scoffing that it was ‘of the nature of a pop-gun which children use, but great, costly and more ingenious.’ 41. Cavendish, Locke, Sydenham and Hobbes may have been wrong about good analysis microscopes, but it is inappropriate to single out Cavendish's objections as ‘silly’ or ‘childish’.
42 It also seems unwise to speak of Cavendish's ‘unique’ role as a female critic of microscopy. Indeed, it may be that the service, introduction of gender into for a good analysis, the debate over mid-seventeenth-century microscopy is as deluding as one of Hooke's cracked lenses. Cavendish's critique of microscopes should be seen in terms of a wider contemporary debate over the roles of dantes topics ‘Art’ and ‘Nature’ in scientific enquiry. Criteria Good Analysis? Although many Greshamites were enthusiastic in their support for artificial instruments and practices, Cavendish believed that all such devices were deeply flawed. Indeed, she claimed that the very artificiality of microscopes counted against them as reliable truth-tellers—regardless of essay service whether the criteria analysis, lenses were well cut or the homework, lighting conditions were acceptable. Thus: ‘all such Arts [as microscopy] prove rather ignorant Follies, than wise Considerations; Art being so weak and defective, that it cannot so much assist, as it doth hinder Nature’. 43. In essence Cavendish was adopting a long-standing view that ‘Art’ distorted the truth of nature, creating ‘monsters’ out of natural creatures.
44 After the for a analysis, publication of Hooke's illustrations, Cavendish was able to see these ‘artificial Monsters’ displayed in dazzling detail on the printed page. For example, under magnification, the tom jones, tiny louse appeared like a ‘lobster’—she asked where the scientific truth could lie in such a representation. 45 Artificial instruments seemed to distort the very reality they were designed to reveal, which meant that ‘those Arts are the best and surest Informers, that alter Nature least, and they the greatest deluders that alter Nature most’. 46. Cavendish's motivation is important here: she was not arguing against criteria good analysis essay scientific enquiry per se ; rather, she was deeply troubled by the uncritical enthusiasm for enquiry based on artifice. Such an approach could not lead to accurate results on which scientific truths could be established. Thus, she argued, ‘that particular sensitive knowledge in man which is built meerly upon artificial experiments, will never make him a good Philosopher’.
47. Not only would magnification distort the object, it would actually create a new category of identity, according to Cavendish. In her view, the subjects of Hooke's investigations existed in some kind of categorical limbo between Art and Nature. Thus she claimed that ‘Art is homework porn not onely gross in comparison to Nature, but, for the most part, deformed and defective, and at best produces mixt or hermaphroditical figures, that is, a third figure between Nature and Art’. 48 Such was the criteria essay, enthusiasm for microscopes that her contemporaries had abandoned critical thinking and failed to consider this new category of identity. Instead, they were merely slavishly following scientific ‘fashion’ for novelty instruments. 49. Cavendish had a point about the ‘hermaphroditical figures’: Hooke's engravings were composites—produced by compiling many images of the objects under scrutiny.
In one sense they were as much pieces of creative art as snapshots of reality, as John T. Harwood and others have argued. 50. On the face of air hostess it, Cavendish's support for ‘Nature’ against ‘Art’ looks like good evidence of hostility at for a good analysis essay, the heart of her relationship with the tom jones, Royal Society. However, it is important not to criteria essay oversimplify the Greshamites' views. There is evidence that even the most enthusiastic supporters of air hostess artificial instruments also welcomed the criteria for a analysis essay, role of natural observation in the scientific process. For example, Hooke sought the best of both worlds, explaining that his methodological intention was to alternate between ‘Artificial Improvements’ and ‘Observations of air hostess Nature’. The relationship between art and nature in scientific inquiry was an intimate and criteria good essay, complementary one, he claimed. ‘I design alwayes to make them follow each other by turns, and as ‘twere to interweave them, being apart but like the Warp or Woof before contexture, unfit either to Cloth, or adorn the Body of Philosophy.’ 51. Sarasohn has argued that Cavendish's negative view of art was connected to her gender.
She argues that ‘Cavendish spoke for many silenced voices … for nature against inferno essay topics art/experimentation … for women against male arrogance and power.’ 52 However, there are problems with this view, which fails to take into account the many male natural philosophers who shared Cavendish's positive endorsement of criteria for a analysis natural over stop, artificial enquiry. For example, Sydenham rejected microscopic anatomy as a ‘violation of good analysis nature’, and rewrite, deplored what he saw as contemporary contempt for those causes that ought to be, and which can be understood; which lie before our feet; which require no rotten supports; which appeal to the understanding at once; which are revealed by either the testimony of our senses, or by anatomical observations of long standing [i.e. without microscopes]. 53. Although it is true that Cavendish's disdain for ‘Art’ was broadly at odds with the experimental programme of the Royal Society, it is important to recognize that the picture is more complex than some previous accounts have suggested. Her views were neither unique nor isolated from contemporary debates—which were ongoing both inside and outside the Royal Society at that time. Importantly, her motivation was in step with the main purpose of the Royal Society.
For, like the Greshamites, Cavendish's aim was to criteria for a analysis establish the essay, surest foundations upon which to build reliable scientific truth. Cavendish's objections to microscopes should also be seen in terms of a wider debate surrounding the relationship between ‘Sense’ and ‘Reason’ in mid-seventeenth century natural philosophy. Criteria Good Essay? Many scholars have contrasted Cavendish's rationalist methodology with the inferno topics, sense-based empiricism of the Royal Society. For A Good Essay? If Cavendish supported ‘Reason’ whereas the Royal Society stood for ‘Sense’ in scientific enquiry, is this not strong evidence of hostility at the heart of the relationship? It is resume true that many experimentalists at the Royal Society were deeply hostile to what they saw as an criteria for a essay, over-reliance on ‘Reason’—or rational methodology—in science. Instead, they advocated basing scientific knowledge on evidence derived from sensory experiments. For example, Hooke claimed that the Royal Society was conducting a programme of essay sensory correction, owing to the faulty reasoning which had afflicted all previous natural philosophy: For the Members of the Assembly having before their ey[e]s so many fatal Instances of the errors and fals[e]hoods, in which the criteria for a good analysis essay, greatest part of mankind has so long wandred, because they rely'd upon the strength of being humane Reason alone, [they] have begun anew to correct all Hypotheses by criteria good analysis, sense, as Seamen do their dead Reckonings by being, Coelestial Observations … . 54.
This negative view of criteria good ‘Reason’ was shared by Henry Power, who approvingly quoted Boyle's views on the practical problems of faulty reasoning. ‘When a Writer … acquaints me onely with his own thoughts or conjectures, without inriching his discourse with any real Experiment or Observation, if he be mistaken in tom jones essay his Ratiotination, I am in some danger of erring with him’. For A Good Analysis? 55. A reliance on human senses produced both opportunities and problems for homework porn, experimental philosophers. In Micrographia , Hooke had shown that natural senses were fallible—for example, the point of a needle was not sharp but blunt, and a ‘dot’ in analysis essay printed type was really a smudge. These findings suggested that natural phenomena were not as they seemed to the naked eye. Many experimentalists believed that the best way to correct these flaws in help natural sense was to use the newly available scientific instruments. For example, Hooke argued that the ‘principal indeavour’ of the Royal Society was ‘to enlarge strengthen the good analysis, Senses by Medicine, and by tom jones critical essay, such outward Instruments as are proper for their particular works.’ 56. Cavendish, who was familiar with these views through her reading of Hooke and Power, claimed with some justification that ‘sense is more in criteria for a good essay fashion than reason’—a state of affairs to which she had strong objections.
57 In Cavendish's view, artificially enhanced senses (which were flawed) should be distinguished from critical essay ‘natural’ senses, which were far superior. This reflected the inferior status of ‘Art’ in her natural philosophy as a whole. The superiority of for a good analysis natural senses meant that, for resume air hostess, example, ‘the best Optick is a perfect natural Eye’. 58 But Cavendish was not entirely consistent on for a, this subject. While sometimes arguing for the superiority of natural senses, she also conceded that they were (in reality) imperfect. In her view, all senses—natural and artificial—were capable only of perceiving the resume air hostess, exterior parts of organisms.
As we have just seen, Cavendish was certain that the major task of the natural philosopher was to understand the interior nature of phenomena, and for this she needed to apply not a microscope or natural sense, but human reason. Thus she argued that ‘The truth is, our exterior senses can go no further than the for a good analysis essay, exterior figures of Creatures, and their exterior actions, but our reason may pierce deeper, and consider their inherent natures and resume air hostess, interior actions’. 59 Consequently, she would rely on contemplative rather than experimental philosophy, ‘and Reason shall be my guide.’ 60. Cavendish's preference for for a, ‘Reason’ over ‘Sense’ was not necessarily linked to her gender. Indeed, her views were shared by other contemporary thinkers who were also questioning the homework porn, fashion for sense among the experimental community. For example, John Worthington was alarmed by Thomas Sprat's enthusiasm for sense, claiming that he was obsessed by ‘what gratifies externall sense, or what sense doth reach.’ 61 Perhaps the best known of all the rationalist thinkers was Hobbes, who famously preferred his own ‘meditation’ to sense-based experimenting.
62 Indeed, Hobbes argued that ‘true ratiocination’ was fundamental to the whole process of natural philosophy. Hobbes had further objections to experimentalists: those who abandoned reason in favour of the popular ‘sense’ were not only bad philosophers; they were also ignoble, he argued. There was a lot more to being a natural philosopher than merely being the operator of an ‘engine’ or a ‘receiver’ (i.e. an Air-Pump), he claimed, declaring that experimentalists can get Engines made, and apply them to the Stars; Recipients made, and for a analysis, try Conclusions; but they are never the more Philosophers for all this … not every one that brings from beyond Seas a new Gin, or other jaunty device, is therefore a philosopher. For if you reckon that way, not only Apothecaries and Gardeners, but many other sorts of dantes inferno Workmen, will put in for, and get the Prize. 63. Cavendish also introduced class into the debate over experimentalism, which she regarded as a hierarchy in which ‘artists’ were at the bottom of the social heap. Artists were like servants, who should rely on for a, rationalist thinkers for depressed, instructions in good how to pursue natural philosophy. Essay Topics? ‘the Contemplator is the Designer, and the Artist the Workman, or Labourer, who ought to acknowledge him his Master’. 64 Indeed, Cavendish inferred that experimenting was beneath the dignity of rationalist thinkers. Thus: ‘Neither doth it always belong to the studious Concepter to make trials or experiments, but he leaves that work to others, whose time is criteria analysis not so much imployed with thoughts or speculations, as with actions’. 65.
Cavendish argued that, if the hierarchy of experimentalism were reversed, scientific knowledge would be halted in its tracks. For if Hooke and Power had their way, then ‘Reason must stoop to Sense, and primary egypt, the Conceptor to the Artist, which will be the way to bring in Ignorance, instead of advancing knowledge; for when the criteria for a good essay, light of Reason begins to be Eclipsed, darkness of Understanding must needs follow.’ 66 In this way, Cavendish linked the advancement of experimentalism with the rewrite essay, triumph of ‘servants’ over their ‘masters’. In an age when social anarchy was a vivid memory, this was a dangerous imputation. It was also particularly unwelcome among the Fellows of the Royal Society, who continuously stressed the ‘nobility’ of criteria good analysis essay their programme in stop being order to attract patronage and criteria for a good analysis essay, funds. 67.
Cavendish and Hobbes were both ‘outsiders’ in the sense that neither was a member of the tom jones critical essay, Royal Society. But there is criteria for a essay evidence that their views on the menial nature of experimenting had at least some resonance within the Royal Society. Although Boyle was an enthusiast for the apparatus of dantes inferno essay experimentation, he rarely got his hands dirty—employing Robert Hooke and a team of technicians to analysis make machines and conduct experiments for him. 68 Furthermore, Boyle never believed that artisans or mechanics were better philosophers than gentlemen. 69. There is one further point: although it is true that Cavendish privileged ‘reason’ as her guide in the conduct of natural philosophy, she also believed that there was an topics, important role for criteria for a good analysis essay, ‘sense’, or sense-based techniques. Indeed, she claimed that natural philosophy should be built on a synthesis of primary help egypt rational contemplation and sense-based observation. For example, she argued that ‘Pure natural Philosophers, shall by natural sense and reason, trace Natures ways, and observe her actions’. 70 Furthermore, ‘the best study is Rational Contemplation joyned with the observations of regular sense’. 71 This is of a piece with Bacon's view that knowledge would only be advanced ‘if contemplation and action may be more nearly and strictly conjoined and united’. Criteria For A Analysis? 72 It may therefore be unwise to characterize Cavendish's approach to experimentalism as ‘wholly’ anti-Baconian.
73. Many scholars have emphasized the role of dantes ‘fancy’ within Cavendish's natural philosophy. 74 This is criteria good analysis essay said to contrast with the resume air hostess, approach of the Royal Society, where Fellows apparently avoided speculative thinking. Thus Sarasohn argues: ‘While her contemporaries eschewed hypothesizing beyond the observed facts, Cavendish embraced speculation which combined reason and fancy’. Good Essay? 75 It is resume certainly true that Cavendish favoured speculation as an important part of the process of natural philosophy. Thus: ‘Experimental and Mechanick Philosophy cannot be above the criteria for a analysis essay, Speculative part, by reason most Experiments have their rise from the Speculative, so that the Artist or Mechanick is but a servant to the Student.’ 76. Many Greshamites took the opposite view. Rewrite? For example, Joseph Glanvill believed the Royal Society should concentrate on gathering data—leaving more speculative hypothesizing to a later date. Thus, in a letter to Cavendish, he argued: all that we can hope for, as yet, is analysis but the History of stop being depressed things as they are, but to say how they are, to raise general Axioms, and to make Hypotheses, must, I think, be the happy priviledge of succeeding Ages; when they shall have gained a larger account of the Phaenomena, which yet are too scant and defective to raise Theories upon … . 77. However, not all Fellows of the Royal Society shared Glanvill's views.
Indeed, the role of speculative thinking within experimental philosophy was a subject of some considerable internal debate within the Society at that time. One area that illustrates the tensions particularly well is the ‘official’ response to Hooke's Micrographia , which appeared under the criteria for a good analysis essay, Society's imprimatur in 1665. Despite being designed as a manifesto for observational experimenting, Hooke's text sometimes strayed beyond empirical description and stop, ventured into for a analysis, more speculative territory, as Michael Hunter has shown. 78 For example, when discussing lunar gravitation, Hooke rejected Cartesian explanations and argued that ‘some other principle must be thought of, that will agree with all the secundary as well as the primary Planets’. He admitted, ‘this, I confess, is but a probability, and not a demonstration’. 79 This tendency in resume Hooke drew a sharply worded instruction from the Society: That Mr Hooke give notice in the dedication of that work to good essay the society, that though they have licensed it, yet they own no theory, nor will be thought to do so: and that the several hypotheses and theories laid down by him therein, are not delivered as certainties, but as conjectures; and that he intends not at all to obtrude or expose them to the world as the opinion of the society. 80. In his response, Hooke made it clear that his own methods differed from essay those adopted by the Society. While acknowledging the excellence of its rules against hypothesizing, Hooke conceded that this was exactly what he had sometimes done in for a good Micrographia . Thus: ‘I may seem to condemn my own course in this treatise, in primary which there may perhaps be some expressions, which may seem more positive than your prescriptions will permit.’ 81.
Thus is criteria analysis essay it clear that commitment to ‘the observed facts’ stripped of hypotheses was not as uniform within the Royal Society as Sarasohn has suggested. When it came to speculative theorizing within natural philosophy, Cavendish and essay, Hooke shared some important common ground. So far I have explored Cavendish's hostility to for a aspects of experimental philosophy. Her suspicion of microscopes, her mistrust of ‘Art’ and her preference for ‘Reason’ over ‘Sense’ as a methodological principle seemed to air hostess be at odds with the programme favoured by many (if not all) Fellows of the Royal Society. Good Essay? However, there are some important positive endorsements of homework porn experimentalism to be found within Cavendish's works, and it is to these that I now turn. Cavendish's support for experimentalism. For an alleged ‘anti-Baconian’ Cavendish was in fact remarkably at ease with Francis Bacon's advice (so central to the Royal Society's ethos) that natural philosophy should be useful for the ‘relief of man's estate’. 82 For example, Cavendish argued that natural philosophers should investigate nature so that ‘we [shall] know how to Increase our Breed of Animals, and our Stores of Vegetables, and to find out the Minerals for our Use’. For A? Their role should be ‘for the Profitable Increase for Men’—a Baconian aim if ever there was one.
83. These views were indistinguishable from those of many members of the homework porn, Royal Society. Indeed, Boyle used similar terms to criteria essay argue that ‘I shall not dare to think my self a true naturalist till my skill can make my garden yield better herbs and flowers, or my orchard better fruit, or my field better corn, or my dairy better cheese, then theirs that are strangers to physiology.’ 84. To achieve useful knowledge, natural philosophers must have a hands-on experimental training, Cavendish argued. They should have ‘Experience by Practice, and Judgement by Observation’. 85 Elsewhere, Cavendish made the rather Baconian point that ‘certainly experiments are very beneficial to man.’ 86. There were other important areas of agreement between Cavendish and homework porn, the Royal Society.
Many Greshamites were committed to expressing new ideas in natural philosophy in plain English to assist in their dissemination. Criteria? For example, William Petty disclosed that ‘’tis the Profession of the [Royal] Society, to make Mysterious things plain; to explode and dantes essay, disuse all insignificant and puzzling words'. 87. Cavendish shared this view. Good Analysis Essay? Her own works (all of which were written in English rather than Latin) would be widely understood because they were ‘Plain and Vulgarly Express'd, as having not so much learning as to Puzle the Reader with Logistical, Metaphysical, Mathematical, or the like terms.’ Therefore, ‘the Truth, or at least the service, Probability thereof, might not be Lost in the Labyrinth of Sophistry, produced from the Corruption of Logick and the Mixture of several Languages.’ 88.
Cavendish and Boyle were united in their condemnation of the iatrochemist Johannes Baptista van Helmont for his use of unnecessarily complex language, as Stephen Clucas has shown. 89 Thus Cavendish complained that Van Helmont had ‘such strange terms and unusual expressions as may puzle any body to apprehend the sense and meaning of them.’ 90 Similarly, Boyle deplored the ‘dark or empty Words’ used in Helmontian chemistry. For A Analysis Essay? 91 Cavendish praised Boyle for his clarity of expression, for ‘he doth neither puzle Nature, nor darken truth with hard words and compounded languages, or nice distinctions’. 92. Cavendish also shared the probabilistic approach favoured by rewrite service, many within the criteria for a analysis essay, Royal Society. 93 Thus she argued that her aim was ‘to find out a Truth, at service, least a Probability in Natural Philosophy’. 94 This approach was similar to criteria good analysis essay that of Boyle, who claimed that his works were no more than a ‘heap of bare Probabilities’. 95 Walter Charleton similarly described his scientific enquiries as ‘at most but ingenious Conjecture’ and ‘in the latitude of Probability only’.
96 In line with this approach, Cavendish was a committed anti-dogmatist. Unlike some philosophers who insisted that their works were ‘true’ (could she have been thinking, perhaps, of Descartes?), Cavendish argued that her works were opinions rather than dogmatic truth-claims. Thus, for example, ‘I will not declare my Opinions for an infallible Truth.’ 97 Cavendish shared her anti-dogmatism with many Fellows. Stop? For example, Boyle argued that his work ‘pretends not to Dogmatize , but only to make an Enquiry .’ 98 And Glanvill composed an entire work against ‘ The Vanity of Dogmatizing ’. 99. One of the most appealing aspects of probabilism was that it allowed freedom of discussion among natural philosophers. Opinions were not ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ they were merely more or less ‘probable’. Cavendish ‘took the liberty to declare my own opinions as other Philosophers do’ because ‘Opinion is criteria for a good analysis free, and may pass without a pass-port’. 100 Indeed, she invited her contemporaries to contradict her opinions—as long as theirs were more rational and resume air hostess, probable. 101 Cavendish was not alone in adopting this position. Glanvill (who was by no means free of dogmatizing tendencies, especially when it came to his belief in witches) nevertheless claimed in a letter to Cavendish that ‘the liberty of Arguings’ was a cause close to his heart. 102.
Thus it is essay clear that Cavendish shared some important aspects of the early Royal Society's programme: her commitment to rewrite essay service plain English, her desire for discursive liberty free from dogmatism, and her Baconian emphasis on the usefulness of natural philosophy were all views with which many Fellows concurred. Rather than regarding the early Royal Society as ‘dangerous, deluded and useless’, it now seems that Cavendish was in fact remarkably at ease with many of its aims and ambitions. In this paper we have seen the ways in which Cavendish's relationship with the early Royal Society was more nuanced than previously thought. Although opposed to some aspects of experimentalism, she nevertheless supported some important aspects of the Society's programme. It is also clear that Cavendish's objections to experimentalism were neither ‘unique’ nor isolated from contemporary debates. When seen in the context of her intellectual milieu , Cavendish's views emerge as a coherent response to some of the most pressing intellectual challenges of her day. It is only by for a good essay, examining the homework porn, connections between her views and those of other mid-seventeenth-century natural philosophers that we can begin to properly assess Cavendish's contribution to contemporary thought.
In doing so, we can better understand the complexities of these ongoing debates over the nature and role of experimentalism in natural philosophy. I would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers whose helpful comments have immeasurably improved this article. ? 1 The few women who published in the mid seventeenth century tended to produce religious works or, occasionally, poetry. Volumes of natural philosophy by women were rare. Good? See Patricia Crawford, ‘Women's published writings 1600–1700’, in Women in English society 1500 –1800 (ed. Mary Prior), pp.
211–282 (Methuen, London, 1985). For a full bibliography of Cavendish's published works, see K. Whitaker, Mad Madge: Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, Royalist, writer and romantic (Chatto Windus, London, 2003), pp. 368–369. I have retained original spellings in quotations, except in primary homework help egypt pyramids the case of ‘then’, which becomes ‘than’, and ‘knowledg’, which becomes ‘knowledge’. ? 2 M. Cavendish, Observations upon Experimental Philosophy . To which is added, The Description of a New Blazing World (A. Maxwell, London, 1666) (hereafter OEP and NBW , respectively). For A Good Analysis Essay? These volumes were bound and published together but paginated separately. I am using the terms ‘science’ and ‘scientific’ here as useful shorthands in place of the more cumbersome (but historically accurate) ‘natural philosophy’ and ‘natural philosophical’. Natural philosophy in the mid seventeenth century encompassed the ‘sciences’ (physics, biology and chemistry) as well as mathematics and metaphysics. ? 3 The Diary of Samuel Pepys, A new and help egypt, complete transcription edited by Robert Latham and William Matthews (London: G. Bell Sons, 1970–83), vol. 8, pp.
243–244. Criteria Analysis? For an account of critical essay this visit and the experiments that Cavendish was shown, see Whitaker, op. cit . (note 1), pp. 302–304. ? 4 The Diary of John Evelyn, Now first printed in full from the manuscripts belonging to Mr. John Evelyn (ed. E. S. de Beer) (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1955), vol. 3, pp. 482–483; The Diary and Correspondence of John Evelyn (ed. For A Analysis Essay? W. Primary Homework Pyramids? Bray) (George Routledge Sons, London, 1906), vol. 4, pp. 8–9.
? 5 The Life of William Cavendish, Duke of criteria essay Newcastle, to which is homework egypt added the criteria, True Relation of resume air hostess my Birth, Breeding and Life, by for a good, Margaret, Duchess of Newcastle (ed. C. H. Firth) (J. C. Nimmo, London, 1886), p. xxxiv. ? 6 S. Mintz, ‘The Duchess of Newcastle's visit to the Royal Society’, J. Engl. Germanic Philol.
51 , 168–176 (1952). Homework Porn? The Royal Society moved from Gresham College to essay Arundel House in The Strand after the Great Fire of 1666, and returned to its former site in 1673. ? 7 Ibid. Help? , p. 168; F. Criteria For A? Bickley, The Cavendish family (Constable, London, 1911), p. 125. ? 8 OEP , sig. b1v; OEP , p. 90 wrongly paginated as 86. ? 9 Mintz, op. cit . (note 6), p. 176.
? 10 Evelyn Fox Keller, ‘Producing petty gods: Margaret Cavendish's critique of experimental science’, Engl. Lit. Hist. 64 , 447–471 (1997). ? 11 Lisa T. Sarasohn, The natural philosophy of Margaret Cavendish: reason and fancy during the resume air hostess, Scientific Revolution (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 2010). ? 12 Keller, op. Criteria For A Good Analysis Essay? cit . (note 10), p. 447.
I use the term ‘Greshamites’ to mean ‘Fellows of the resume, Royal Society’. See note 6. ? 14 Sarasohn, op. cit . (note 11), p. 1. ? 16 Keller, op. cit . (note 10), p. 450. ? 17 Henry Power, Experimental Philosophy, in Three Books: Containing New Experiments Microscopical, Mercurial, Magnetical (London, 1664); Robert Hooke, Micrographia, or Some Physiological Descriptions of Minute Bodies made By Magnifying Glasses (hereafter Micrographia ) (Jo. Martyn Ja. Allestry, London, 1665). A significant part of Cavendish's 1666 text was devoted to her theory of perception. ? 18 William Cavendish, Earl, Marquis, and eventually Duke of Newcastle. Both William and Margaret were Royalists who fled from criteria for a good analysis England during the 1640s, met in Paris and married in 1645. ? 19 Noel Malcolm, Aspects of Hobbes (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2002), p. 320. ? 20 Whitaker, op. cit. Rewrite? (note 1), p. 103. ? 21 OEP , p. 8. Criteria For A Good Analysis Essay? On the dantes topics, debates prompted by the development of microscopes in the seventeenth century, see Catherine Wilson, The invisible world: early modern philosophy and the invention of the microscope (Princeton University Press, 1995).
? 22 Micrographia , sig. f2v. ? 25 OEP , p. 90 wrongly paginated as 86. ? 27 Further Observations (hereafter FO ), published in OEP but paginated separately, p. 54. ? 31 Sarasohn, op. cit . Criteria Analysis Essay? (note 11), p. Critical? 33. ? 33 K. Criteria For A Good Analysis Essay? Dewhurst, ‘Locke and Sydenham on dantes inferno essay topics, the teaching of good anatomy’, Med.
Hist. 2 , 1–12 (1958) reprints the original text of service Locke's ‘Anatomie’, a medical tract written in collaboration with Thomas Sydenham in 1668. I am grateful to John Henry for for a, this reference. ? 34 The Works of Thomas Sydenham (transl. ed. R. G. Latham) (Sydenham Society, London, 1848–50), vol. Service? 2, p. 171. Sydenham's objections were partly based on his view that God had shaped man's faculties to observe only the outer superficies of bodies and to attempt to search beyond this was consequently sinful. See David E. Wolfe, ‘Sydenham and for a good essay, Locke on the limits of anatomy’, Bull. Hist. Med. 35 , 193–220 (1961), at critical essay, p. 210.
? 35 Latham, op. cit . Criteria Good? (note 34), p. Rewrite? 171. ? 36 Dewhurst, op. cit . Criteria Good Analysis? (note 33), p. 4. ? 38 See, for example, E. Homework Porn? Wilkins, The natural philosophy of Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, in contemporary context (PhD thesis, University College London, 2013). ? 39 Sarasohn, op. Criteria For A Good? cit . (note 11), p. 33. ? 40 OEP , p. 11. The references—as Cavendish helpfully lists in the marginalia—are to those who ‘play’ with glass tubes, atoms and exterior figures. ? 41 Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer, Leviathan and the air pump, Hobbes, Boyle , and the experimental life (hereafter LAP ) (Princeton University Press, 1985), p. 307. Hobbes had serious reservations about the limitations of microscopes, arguing that there were creatures ‘so small as that no microscope can make them visible.’ The English Works of depressed Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury; now first collected and edited by Sir William Molesworth (John Bohn, London, 1839–45), vol. Criteria Analysis? 1, p. 446. ? 42 On the dangers of handling ‘rejected knowledge’ see LAP , pp. 11–13.
? 43 M. Cavendish, Grounds of Philosophy (A. Maxwell, London, 1668), pp. 294–295. ? 44 M. Cavendish, Philosophical Letters (hereafter Letters ) (London, 1664), p. 283. Rewrite Service? Debates over criteria analysis, art and nature can be traced back to antiquity; they took a new turn in the mid seventeenth century with the development of new instruments (such as microscopes) and techniques (such as distillation). Essay? See H. Floris Cohen, The scientific revolution: a historiographical inquiry (University of Chicago Press, 1994); William R. Criteria Good Essay? Newman, Promethean ambitions: alchemy and the quest to perfect nature (University of critical Chicago Press, 2004). ? 49 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87, p. 92.
Miniature microscopes were worn as bracelet charms at this time. See Marjorie Hope Nicolson and David Stuart Rodes (eds), Shadwell: the analysis, virtuoso (Edward Arnold, London, 1966), p. xx. ? 50 J. T. Harwood, ‘Rhetoric and dantes topics, graphics in Micrographia’ in Robert Hooke: New Studies (ed. Michael Hunter and Simon Schaffer), pp. 119–147 (Boydell, Woodbridge, 1989), at good analysis, p. 145; Meghan C. Doherty, ‘Discovering the ‘true form’: Hooke's Micrographia and the visual vocabulary of engraved portraits’, Notes Rec. R. Primary Homework Egypt Pyramids? Soc. Criteria Essay? 66 , 211–234 (2012). On Hooke's use of the compound microscope, and the distortions this caused, see Brian J. Dantes? Ford, Images of science: a history of scientific illustration (The British Library, London, 1992), pp. 174–175 and 182–183. ? 51 R. For A Good Essay? Hooke, preface to An Attempt for the Explication of the Phaenomena … , quoted in Jim Bennett, Michael Cooper, Michael Hunter and Lisa Jardine (eds) London's Leonardo: the life and work of Robert Hooke (Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 85. ? 52 Sarasohn, op. Tom Jones? cit . (note 11), pp.
12–13. ? 53 Latham, op cit . (note 34), vol. 1, p. 20. Sydenham differentiated between longstanding basic anatomy—knowledge of the structure of the kidneys, the skeleton, and good analysis essay, so on—and more speculative knowledge derived from microscopic anatomization. ? 54 Micrographia , sig. g1r. ? 55 H. Power, op. cit. (note 17), sig. Resume Air Hostess? c3v–c4v (quoting Boyle's Proemial Essay , 1661). ? 56 Micrographia , sig. g1r. ? 57 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87. ? 60 OEP , p. 91 wrongly paginated as 87. ? 61 R. C. Christie (ed.), The diary and correspondence of John Worthington (Manchester: The Chetham Society, 1886), vol.
2, pt 2, p. 265. Spinoza's similarly negative assessment of sense-experience is summarized in analysis essay R. Manning, ‘Spinoza's physical theory’, in The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy , Spring 2012 edn (ed. Edward N. Zalta) (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/spinoza-physics/). ? 62 T. Hobbes, Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civill (ed. C. B. Macpherson) (Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1968), p. 106. ? 63 T. Hobbes, Considerations upon the Reputation, Loyalty, Manners Religion of depressed Thomas Hobbes of Malmsbury, Written by himself, by way of Letter to a Learned Person [John Wallis] (London, 1680), pp. 53 and 55. ? 64 Letters , p. 502. By ‘artists’ Cavendish means those people who make or use artificial instruments. ? 67 Micrographia , sig.
A1v; Glanvill, Scepsis Scientifica , sig. a3v (London, 1665). See also Michael Hunter, The Royal Society and its Fellows 1660–1700: the morphology of an early scientific institution (British Society for the History of Science, Chalfont St Giles, 1982), esp. pp. 9 and 25. ? 68 Steven Shapin, ‘The invisible technician’, Am. Scient. 77 , 554–563 (1989). ? 69 LAP , p. 131. See also Shapin, op. For A Analysis Essay? cit. (note 68), p. 557, who argues that ‘very few’ of Boyle's experiments involved ‘the laying of essay topics his hands upon criteria good analysis essay, experimental apparatus or materials.’ Instead, a ‘very substantial proportion’ of resume air hostess his work was done by criteria analysis, paid assistants who were ‘invisible’ to homework porn Boyle and remain unchronicled in the historical record. ? 72 Sidney Warhaft (ed.), Francis Bacon: a selection of his works (Macmillan, London, 1965), p. 235. ? 73 Keller, op. cit . Criteria Good? (note 10), p. 452. ? 74 Sylvia Bowerbank, ‘The spider's delight: Margaret Cavendish and stop being depressed, the “female” imagination’, Eng.
Lit. Renaiss. 14 , 392–408 (1984); Sarasohn, op. cit . Criteria For A Essay? (note 11). ? 75 Sarasohn, op. Stop Depressed? cit . For A Good? (note 11), p. 196. ? 77 Glanvill to Cavendish [13 October 1667], in Letters and stop depressed, Poems in honour of the Incomparable Princess, Margaret, Dutchess of criteria essay Newcastle (hereafter LP ) (Thomas Newcombe, London, 1676), pp. Primary? 24–25.
Glanvill's own contribution to this enterprise was a history of mining in good analysis essay the Mendips. ? 78 M. Hunter, ‘Hooke the natural philosopher’, in primary help egypt Bennett et al. (eds), op. cit. (note 51), pp. Criteria? 130–131. ? 79 Micrographia , p. Homework Porn? 246. ? 80 T. Birch, The History of the Royal Society of London , for Improving of Natural Knowledge, from its First Rise (London, 1756–57), vol. 1, p. 491. ? 82 Bacon argued that the for a good essay, purpose of natural philosophy was ‘for the glory of the homework porn, Creator and the relief of man's estate’. See Warhaft, op. cit . (note 72), p. 235. ? 83 Orations of Divers Sorts, Accommodated to criteria for a good essay Divers Places (hereafter Orations ) (London, 1662), pp. 244–245. In this volume Cavendish often presents two opposing sides to a single issue, arguing contradictory positions with equal conviction.
In this case there is stop depressed no counter-oration. ? 84 T. Birch (ed.), The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle (London, 1772), vol. 2, p. 64. ? 86 Letters , p. 496. Cavendish was not prepared to convert her positive endorsement of experimentalism into criteria for a analysis, financial support. When the Fellows appealed to her for a donation in 1668, she declined to help. See M. Hunter, Establishing the inferno essay topics, new science: the experience of the early Royal Society (Boydell Press, Woodbridge, 1989), p. For A Analysis Essay? 167. ? 87 W. Petty, The Discourse made before the air hostess, Royal Society … Concerning the Use of Duplicate Proportion …, sig. A5v (London, 1674).
? 88 M. Cavendish, Philosophical and Physical Opinions (William Wilson, London, 1663), sig. b4r–4v. Cavendish was making a virtue of necessity: she was ignorant of both Latin and Greek. ? 89 S. Clucas, ‘Margaret Cavendish's materialist critique of Van Helmontian chymistry’, Ambix 58 , pp. 4–5 (2011). ? 91 R. Boyle, The sceptical chymist … (Henry Hall for R. Davis and B. Took, Oxford, 1680), pp. 210. ? 92 Letters , p. 496. Criteria Good Analysis? ‘Nice’ is stop used to for a analysis mean precise, in a mean way. ? 93 B. Dantes Essay? Shapiro, Probability and certainty in seventeenth-century England: a study of the for a good analysis, relationships between natural science, religion, history, law and literature (Princeton University Press, 1983), p. 4. ? 95 R. Boyle, A Free Enquiry Into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature (hereafter VN ) (ed. Edward B. Homework? Davis and Michael Hunter) (Cambridge University Press, 1996), p. 6. Good Essay? Much of this work was written in the 1660s but was not published until 1686.
? 96 W. Charleton, Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Charltoniana (T. Newcomb for Thomas Heath, London, 1654), pp. Homework Porn? 6 and criteria good analysis essay, 128. ? 97 Letters , p. Tom Jones Critical Essay? 17. Cavendish also argued against criteria good essay extreme scepticism.
See M. Cavendish, The Worlds Olio (J. Dantes Essay Topics? Martin J. Allestrye, London, 1655), p. 4. ? 99 Glanvill, The Vanity of Dogmatizing (London, 1661).
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