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Bonhoeffer Essay Research Paper Dietrich Bonhoeffer -…
Five reasons why you need to hire a freelance contract copywriter now. Good News for 1Q/2Q 2015: Pent up demand for marketing communications projects letting loose! Bad News for 1Q/2Q 2015: The vice is tightening to essay get it all done. Okay, I will admit this from the beginning, as a long-standing freelance or contractor copywriter, this blog is a little self-serving. Titles O Term Paper Psychology. But, listen up all you marketing managers, creative agency directors and non-profit presidents responsible for your organization’s marcom: If the vice is tightening on rudd bonhoeffer, your promotional needs: Hire or contract freelance copywriters. .. without going through the hassle and time crunch to hire more full-time staff. Most businesses like yours are pulling out of the recession and handling pent up demand for marketing communications services. Managers have more items on their promo plate than they have hours in dress code essay, their day. Essay. Since business is growing, all those shelved communications proposals and marketing plans are being dusted off and implemented. Is the vice tightening up enough yet?
Then, outsourcing your many writing projects–large and small–to freelancers is one of the smartest, most economical decisions you can make. Hiring someone to write your sales collateral, blog posts and web copy can free you up to do your job and provide you with better ROI. So,with this in mind, here are the TOP FIVE reasons why hiring a freelance contract writer makes more dollars and sense: Experts in their field . You are a fantastic manager and creative individual, and code essay you may even be a great writer with considerable training, but do you have the rudd time or focused expertise to sit down and write a polished professional piece from start to institute for applied thinking finish? Your time is money. You don’t need to spend entire afternoons tweaking brochure content or creating press releases.
Think of rudd, how much money you are worth per hour and multiply it times the amount of hours it will take you to finish writing that instruction booklet or product description. Flexibility . Working with a freelancer provides you with flexibility. You can work out an agreement that meets your specific needs within your budget, whether it’s on a per project, contract or long term basis. Freelance writers offer better rates because of the flexibility they offer in terms of working arrangements. Save time and money . Freelancers are a more cost effective option when compared to hiring because you don’t have to spend money and resources on the hiring process, training, benefits, and the cost of continuously employing someone. You can work out paper a service agreement based on a specific budget number. Better still, professional freelance writers meet deadlines and go above and beyond expectations because they are hungrier and want to renew your business more so than any permanent employee who knows a consistent paycheck will always be there no matter what their deliveries may be. Eliminate overhead and HR bureaucracy. When you hire freelance contractor writers, no need for office space (unless you already have it), insurance benefits or paid vacation.
They want to build a long term relationship with your company without the insistence of full time work. Freelance writers focus on rudd bonhoeffer, the project at term paper of rizal, hand. They are not distracted with office politics. And you deal with one person for everything. No agency protocols to mess with. Bring in fresh outside perspectives.
You’ve spent hours thinking about your business and tweaking your products and services. You can probably recite your current brochure in your sleep. Rudd. Because freelance writers have most likely worked for your competitors at some point or already taken on a similar project under another roof, they have more diverse thinking and thesis empowerment are more capable of generating new ideas and thinking out-of-the-box to make your products and services sound even better. A Word to Communications Majors Entering the bonhoeffer Real World: Network First, Cover Letter/Resume Second. How many English/Communications/PR/Journalism majors realize that 70-80 percent of essay, jobs available are never posted on traditional job sites or posting boards? I was honored to present to a group of bright-eyed and rudd bushy-tailed graduating English majors from Ursuline College, Walsh University and Mount Union College last Saturday as part of a group of professional writers giving a little reality therapy on what to thesis empowerment expect when entering the real world of job seeking and the workplace after (or while) earning that hard-earned degree.
It was a brilliant move on the part of Dr. Ronald Scott, Walsh University Division Chair and Associate Professor of English, to bring about 100 students together for a half-day focused on rudd essay, #8220;An English major? What job will you find with that?#8221; During my presentation, it was a show of hands for how many have ever attended a professional networking activity (i.e., IABC, PRSA, SPJ, NEOSTC): I believe I saw 2 hands go up. A show of hands for how many had a profile on LinkedIn. It looked like 3, maybe 4. A show of paper psychology, hands for how many have put together a portfolio to rudd essay take out to interviews and cook examples post on personal website. Again, it looked like 3 or 4. And finally, a show of rudd, hands for how many have had or looked into thesis empowerment, corporate or company internships.
That looked like a good half-a-dozen at most. A good portion of the symposium was spent on presentations by college career center coaches on how to bonhoeffer #8220;perfect#8221; your resume and cover letter. Don#8217;t get me wrongthis is a very, very important step and needs to be handled. Yet, I hoped to get another message out empowerment there loud and bonhoeffer clear on the importance of getting out there and criteria good essay networking , too. And how to make it a priority and elevate it to a high art. Bonhoeffer. Listen up you starter millennials, whether majoring in English or not: It#8217;s who you know. It#8217;s how you stand out. It#8217;s how you relate to criteria for a analysis business professionals one-on-one.
To succeed in the art of networking , that means: 1. Essay. Maintaining eye contact and leaving your smart phone in your pocket on criteria for a good analysis essay, silence. Okay, okay, smartphones can come out when typing in contact information or showing something from your online portfolio. After that, shove it back in your pocket#8230;and keep it silent. Essay. 2. Asking a lot of inquisitive questions about others and their struggles and challenges on the job it#8217;s really not about you at firstin fact it seldom is. 3. Instead of trying to fit in resume cook examples, and following the rulesget outside your box and take chances. Find your gimmick, schtick, juice#8230;and let #8216;er rip. Don#8217;t be annoying, just charming. Rudd. Scary? Yeah, maybe at first, but it fades quickly. If you reach a level like me where every day you go out there, make a fool of yourself somehow, someway#8230;and in for a good essay, the end no-one really cares.
Get out there and bonhoeffer essay stand out a littlethat#8217;s what counts! And in fact, by doing this you will most likely endear yourself to someone who will want you more than anyone else. And#8230;let#8217;s not forget the institute most crucial element in the art of networking that will jettison you to the top because only maybe 5 percent of essay, job opportunity seekers will do this: Follow up! Keep sending appropriate, clever, focused, awesome correspondence that will keep you top of mind when an opportunity arises. Don#8217;t be a pest, just persistent. Believe me, you#8217;ll eventually nail it! What#8217;s Trending for #8220;Goin#8217; Green in 2015#8221;? What’s the good best news about Green Trends in 2015 ? Nearly every industry seems to be trending toward environmental responsibility, more companies than ever are setting up or adding to their in-house “greenprints” and most consumers are demanding green products and rudd essay services at home and in their communities. Here’s the #8220;Top 6#8243; of what’s most trending for “Goin’ Green#8221; in 2015: 1. Urban farming . In response to the swelling demand for fresh, local food, expect to see integrated gardening projects becoming commonplace. People are beginning to reject the idea that farming is necessarily a rural pursuit. Community gardens are cropping up in the ever-increasing vacant city lots from abandoned home teardowns.
Backyard chickens and goats are taking up residence as a result of eased-up city ordinances. Food forests are taking root from increased funding and institute thinking resources from community foundations and non-profits. In Akron, look for increased use of vacant lots in rudd essay, Summit Lake, West Hill and good essay North Hill and around the Zoo for accelerated urban farming practices. 2. Increased sustainability in dining. The National Restaurant Association has identified sustainability measures as one of 2015’s hottest industry trends. Watch for more sustainable fish and seafood options, more responsibly-raised and free range meat and poultry served and rudd essay more locally-grown ingredients added to major entrees.
More restaurateurs will be partnering with local food advocacy groups to dress code essay decrease food waste through composting, and conserving energy, water and other resources. Bonhoeffer Essay. In Akron, look for increase in food waste partnerships between locally-owned restaurants and coffeehouses and institute for applied critical composters. 3. Rudd Bonhoeffer. Demand for natural and non-toxic materials . Already trendy, especially when locally- sourced and increasingly health-conscious. Think zero-VOC paints, low-VOC carpeting and natural fiber insulation. Materials such as limestone, alpaca wool and empowerment local pine lumber are increasing in demand. More and more options for sustainably produced, socially responsible clothing and furnishings are all around us. We’ll see green lines from both high-end designers as well as moderate retailers like Target’s Tom’s collection and BeGood. In Akron, look for alpaca insulation available for rudd bonhoeffer, home energy retrofits and increased consignment stores identifying natural materials and locally-made goods in their mix. Criteria Essay. 4. Living roofs and rudd bonhoeffer essay walls. These “lively” roofs and walls are becoming increasingly popular not only as green home features, but also cropping up as strip mall/commercial office building adornments.
Besides conveying energy efficiency benefits and helping regulate surface water runoff, they protect a building’s interior from electromagnetic radiation. Green walls and roofs not only improve aesthetics, but also moderate temperatures around buildings. In Akron, look for a new terracing systems on hillside community gardens and thesis living walls and green roofs on new and rudd bonhoeffer renovated commercial buildings. Term Paper. 5. Investment in greener homes. Rudd Bonhoeffer. Smaller footprints and greener features ranked at the top of the trends list among NAHB survey respondents with 74 percent saying their next homes are smaller; and 68 percent saying their homes will get greener in resume cook, 2015—far surpassing the other trends on rudd bonhoeffer essay, the survey.
According to Green Home Builder magazine, homeowners are ready and willing to live in for a essay, greener homes even for extra money. Builders are rising to the occasion with more energy-efficient new construction and water-conserving plumbing without premium pricing. Net zero, water smart and passive houses are increasing in rudd bonhoeffer essay, demand. With the increasing affordability of solar power (and even geothermal and wind) for code, individual consumers, this type of home is likely to explode in popularity over the next year. Rudd Bonhoeffer. In Akron, look for a new Passive House to be built by new home developer and more efforts in solar panel and wind (in the thesis empowerment form of windpod) installations. 6. Cargo and e-bikes. There’s a revolution rolling down our city’s streets, and its symbol is cargo bicycles and e-bicycles (aka electric bicycle using batteriesmany solar-powered). E-bikes utilize electriceven solar batteries to essay offer a boost when needed for pedaling up hills.
These two new-wave bicycle types are the #1 health trend identified for families in ParentMap. Okay, the cargo bike is slow and psychology heavy, but it transports several bodies on one vehicle and over-sized goods that once was the sole transport option belonging to the automobile. More than any development in rudd bonhoeffer, the past few decades, these two bicycle transformations fulfill the empowerment promise of integrating bicycling into rudd bonhoeffer, our daily lives. In Akron, look for bicycle grocery delivery service to be offered by thesis empowerment, non-traditional grocer and more bicycle commuters mounting e-motors on their rear racks. Recyclebank: The List: Green Trends to Watch For in rudd, 2015. Resume Cook Examples. ParentMap: #1 health trend for families.
National Association of Homebuilders. Green Homebuilder magazine. National Restaurant Association. #1 Marketing Trend for 2015: Quality Information Content. Quality writing still matters#8230; and now, it’s more important than ever! There are more social media venues for marketing than ever before, and the ever-increasing desire to segment and rudd bonhoeffer personalize requires quality copywriting and content creation versatility. Today, your business relies on its online reputation. Term Paper. Ongoing quality correspondence and professional sales collateral supports that reputation. Hiring a professional writer is rudd essay, a great way to maximize your company’s online and offline branding potential. With this mind, here’s the Top Five Reasons why you should invest in an expert writer: Your website represents your entire company . Dress Code. If your site features well-written, engaging content, you promote a high-quality entity. Remember that in most cases what you write is less important than how you write; therefore it’s mandatory to collaborate with a content writer who can put facts, feelings and an effective call-to action into rudd bonhoeffer, words in an ideal manner. Connect to your clients more effectively.
Professional writers know how to write for different audiences. Trained writers know how to analyze audiences and then target them with various writing strategies. Google values fresh content. If you don’t have a full-time writer on staff, chances are your website content rewrites and blog posts are afterthoughts. To maximize your SEO potential, you need to frequently update your website and blog with quality information. Essay. Good SEO practices will help your website rank higher in search engine results, draw more visitors and rudd enhance the popularity of your website, ultimately generating increased revenues. Concise social media content reaches more people. People are far more likely to resume cook examples share information via social media when it’s engaging. Professional writers have been trained to write effective headlines and essay titles, which is an important skill for managing any company’s social media accounts. Completing projects more efficiently.
With a professional writer on hand, you can plan and good analysis essay implement group projects much more quickly. Rudd Bonhoeffer. Communication is key when developing long-term plans, and your writer can help you develop tangible goals that everybody understands. The professional writer knows how to work effectively in a team with graphic designers to make the images and visual style work with the words. #8220;The Need for examples, Quality Information Content as the Most Important Marketing Trend#8221; is based on research conducted by Washington, D.C.-based TorchLight Hire, one of the rudd bonhoeffer essay nation’s largest marketing and titles o term communications recruiting and staffing firms. Ever had a work project that drove you crazy? One of the few times in my life when I was unable to bonhoeffer complete a work assignment, definitely due to lack of skills, was the time when a unique media relations project landed on good, my desk while serving as Information Officer for rudd essay, the State of Minnesota’s Tourism Office. I was told to host a group of recreational vehicle (RV) travel writers on a six-day excursion throughout the state. The purpose was to feature the state’s finest RV campgrounds with adjacent tourist attractions for term paper, the travel writers to experience, ultimately resulting in a splash of positive feature articles that would appear in popular RV publications.
This particular tour proved unique in that I had to essay be the official driver of travel writers experiencing the state first-hand in a RV donated by a local dealer who also happened to be a top supporter of the dress code Minnesota Governor. Rudd Bonhoeffer. Overall, I was excited about the institute for applied thinking assignment, but a bit nervous about the fact that I had no previous experience driving “oversized” and “over-elevated” vehicles. This inevitably became my downfall! Here’s how it all went down, down, down: On Day Two, I sheared the large antennae and bonhoeffer AC cover clean off the RV’s roof while driving under a local bridge without enough clearance.
On Day Three, I backed into a parked delivery truck, taking the term rear bumper off the RV and annihilating the rudd truck’s passenger side. On Day Three, I forgot to set the parking brakes when stopped on a steep bluff, resulting in the RV rolling backwards downhill, pitching over an embankment and good analysis essay lodging into a grove of rudd bonhoeffer, mature pine trees. Needless to say, the RV was totally trashed. Dress Code Essay. Halfway through the tour, I decided to cut my losses and dispatched a passenger van to drive the writers back to the airport so they could fly home early. Back at the office, the aftermath was brutal. Rudd. I had to explain everything to my angry superiors and titles o term psychology RV owneras well as the Governor himself. Not only had I run up tens of thousands of dollars worth of damages to the outside of the rudd bonhoeffer vehicle and the ill-fated delivery truck, but I also destroyed the engine, forgetting to re-fuel with diesel instead of regular gas. Luckily, the RV was insured, engine replaced and body repaired.
I wasn’t fired. Believe it or not, all of the resulting travel articles were overwhelmingly positive, although they did include mention of the criteria for a good essay misadventures and mishaps of an untrained and unlucky chauffeur. The only lasting consequences were acquiring the nickname of “Crash Crain” and only allowed to drive a small and cheap 15-year-old state-sanctioned Chevy Nova while on rudd bonhoeffer essay, any official business. Resume. IABC Heritage Conference 2013 Elevates My Game. At first blush, I wasn’t much enamored with visiting a city in a #8220;Red#8221; state nicknamed “India-No-Place” nor do I spend much time sports fanning (conference theme was “Elevate your Game,” and Opening Night Reception was held at the NCAA Hall of Champions). But, wh en I found out that my fellow IABC Cleveland/Akron Board Member Kavita Sherman was one of the instrumental conference organizers; that I was being offered a nice stipend to cover the majority of my costs; the location was just one state over and less than a five hour drive; and that coincidentally I could #8220;Priceline#8221; a top hotel overlooking the Central Canal Culture District that I covered in essay, a recent article I wrote on #8220;stormwater management#8221; for Turf magazine, I couldn#8217;t pass it up. Dress Essay. I’m pleased to rudd report that my preconceived notions about the conference were blown away quickly after experiencing the incredible hospitality of the institute for applied city and conference hosts together with the quality of the essay conference programs and presenters. My first encounter at code essay, the conference was attending the Chapter Leaders Forum. Here, I picked up a lot of great tips for working on building and retaining memberships serving on the Board as Membership Director for the IABC-Cleveland/Akron Chapter.* Key Take-aways : Try “Tour and Talks” by rudd bonhoeffer essay, holding your meetings at members’ workplaces; keep age differences in mind when programming; consistency (time, place, etc) and quality of speakers is paramount; mentoring and buddy systems for new members; guest coupons; robo reminder calls mixed with personal calls; assign special short-term projects for members to feel involved and specialjoining Board can come later. Tim was backed up by o term paper under, “graphic recorder (aka mindful artist) Breah Parker, who continually synthesized verbal content into detailed graphic charts, bringing the words and interactions in the room to essay life for participants way cool as I never experienced that before.
Key Take-away: When influencing, your constituents will only remember 50% when you dialogue, 75% when immersed, 90% when involved. Dress Essay. Whats in it for Me? Cindy L. Graham, Goodwill Industries, Indianapolis, IN. Rudd Bonhoeffer. Key Take-aways: The customer is the boss; be available to the customer 24/7 and reach them wherever they are on multiple channels; the customer conversation never stops; create communities where they can dialogue with you back and forth; people love loyalty programs. Jump Start Small Business Communications Will Smith, EScreenz, Entre Computer Systems, Rochester, NY. Key Take-aways: Small businesses with small marcom budgets represent 50% of working population and on women empowerment generate 65% of the new jobs for marcoms. Spend time and money on making a killer world-class website with lots of rudd bonhoeffer, links; use the newswires. Case studies: Small bank offered community free meeting space, Manufacturer developed fan base for term paper of rizal, snowplow lovers with killer YouTube videos and rudd bonhoeffer online chat sites. Why Reptation Risk is More Than a PR Issue Sean Williams, Communication AMMO, Cleveland OH. Key Take-aways : Technology, data security, regulatory compliance are types of risks; the “reputation” economy is growing all the institute time; Good measures of reputation include (1) direct feedback from relevant publics (2) positive share of bonhoeffer essay, social media (3) positive share of media coverage; Communicators notoriously fall flat on knowing numbers, regulations and criteria for a analysis business; content analysis is too much on “boiling the ocean.” Eleven Ways to Rock Your Communications Career Tracy Imm, Charm City Chicks, Baltimore, MD. For someone like me in “Career Mid-life Crisis,” clearly experiencing age discrimination in job searching and straddling the two worlds of rudd, corporate employee (though part-time) and freelancingI was at full attention sitting in examples, this one.
I walked out with no less than a dozen books and blogs I need to read in order to keep moving forward! Key Take-aways : Discover your “Why” and don’t start with your “What”; check out Ralph Marston’s “Power of Purpose” and subscribe to his “Daily Motivator”; the reason you may be unhappy at rudd bonhoeffer essay, work is on women empowerment, that you have a “Values Conflict”; Be an early adapter, stay relevant and never stop learningat least one hour a day!; luck happens when prep meets opportunity; ask the universe for what you want, own that room and then you’ll be sure to rudd get it. Why can we not write like we talk? The best writing is simplelike you are targeting it to a clueless kidbut most writers can’t do that. Key Take-aways : Use #8220;The Universal Story#8221; template and you can’t go wrong#8220;Once Upon a Time,#8221; then #8220;Suddenly,#8221; then #8220;Luckily,#8221; and finally, its #8220;Happily Ever After;#8221; readability needs to be at the 7th grade level; vary the resume examples length of your sentences. Demo nstrating ROI: How Public Relations Social Media Drive Business Metrics Melissa Baratta, Affect, New York, NY. Key Take-aways : 30% of rudd bonhoeffer, us are not tracking ROI; Setting realistic goals include grounding in reality, knowing the of rizal limitations of bonhoeffer essay, resources and empowerment commitment from rudd, executive leadership; you’ve got to keep a good mix of o term paper under, PR, social media and marketing going; Social media audiencesLinkedIn is for the B-B commercial and bonhoeffer essay industrial, Twitter is for small business tips and Facebook is for consumers; quality over quantity. Term Paper. Student Involvement: Key to IABC’s Future? On either side of the conference, I had the opportunity to taxi a Kent State University student to essay and from the conference. She was put through the ringer by competing on resume examples, one of three student teams whose challenge was to come up with a full-fledged marketing communications campaign for a new sports service within a few hours. She indeed survived the challenge and rudd bonhoeffer essay had a great time at the conference.
But. she was the last student standing for term paper, our Cleveland/Akron chapter and bonhoeffer essay was now checking out for good. I learned from resume, her that IABC needs to rudd ramp up student involvement. Makes senseafter all, they are our future! * The Cleveland IABC chapter hasn’t officially #8220;slashed on#8221; Akron, but since half the Board works and lives in dress code essay, Akron, and we’re re-introducing programs and focusing on rudd bonhoeffer, recruiting there, I add it on whenever possible. Design-Build magazine COVER STORY: 2014 Trends for Home Garden. I had the privilege of providing the cover story again for October 2013#8217;s Design-Build magazine. Institute. It#8217;s all about #8220;Bold Balanced,#8221; Rise of the rudd bonhoeffer Millennials and Incredible Edibles. What a great year for for applied thinking, home and garden in 2014. READ ON: Colors are vivid, edibles are erupting, men and millennials are influencing designs, and balance is more important than ever.
Few landscapers can argue the fact that one of the most important things they can do for their businesses to ensure long-term health is to keep up on bonhoeffer, trends in their areas of expertise, fields and industries. For Applied Critical Thinking. Only by doing so can they prepare themselves for changes and ensure they have the rudd essay proper resources and skilled operators in demand in a constantly changing work environment. #8220;In this current economy in general and landscaping, in particular you have to know how to connect the dots, understand your customer, drive consumer sales and institute critical thinking build your brand,#8221; says Suzi McCoy, owner of Garden Media Group, Philadelphia. She is also author of the annual Garden Trends Report, one of the most published garden studies in trade and consumer news. Bonhoeffer. Canete Landscape Design Construction in northern New Jersey has an essential need to keep up with the trends. #8220;We have large commercial clients who ask us to change the landscape look of their properties every few years,#8221; says owner Tom Canete. To hold onto these accounts, Canete needs to know what the o term psychology most cutting-edge, contemporary look is bonhoeffer, during new installation periods. Turf DesignBuild delves into the major trends that will heavily influence 2014 landscapes. Current landscaping trends tend to reflect more on regional economic and practical needs, and less on the happy-go-lucky across-the-board whims and desires of the past. Much of it is due to landscaping#8217;s new social and o term paper under economic-minded demographic taking the helm. #8220;Landscape design trends tend to be regionally based most of the time,#8221; explains Stacy Zimmerman, communications director of the bonhoeffer essay Association of Professional Landscape Designers (APLD), Harrisburg, Penn. #8220;What works in the Northeast usually is not the trend in the Southwest.#8221; In north Texas, Chris Lee, president of Dallas-based Earthworks, says the biggest trend is moving toward more sustainable landscapes and good essay efficient water use. #8220;We are doing a ton of rudd essay, designs and installations based on native plantings and xeriscape concepts, primarily due to thesis on women the ever-increasing water restrictions and shortages.#8221; That#8217;s the typical story in the South where landscapers are dealing with rising drought issues while a rapidly increasing population places extreme pressures on local water resources. #8220;While some areas of the South have been dealing with this for years, it#8217;s relatively new to the Dallas-Fort Worth area, believe it or not,#8221; adds Lee. Lee says his customers are looking for native and sustainable planting options beyond succulents and rocks. #8220;If you can bring native plants into rudd essay, the landscape that extend beyond what people normally consider xeriscape and show them that sustainable can be beautiful, you will have great success in this market.#8221; In the Northeast, landscape designers are dealing with a completely opposite paper under psychology, climate scenario: flooding.
Most Northeast-based landscapers agree the recent bout of bonhoeffer, extreme weather will dictate more sobering trends in thesis on women, the industry for years to come. #8220;The only rudd bonhoeffer essay, thing I have to say about institute for applied thinking trends in the next few years is that it#8217;s all about drainage corrections, garden renovations and tree replacements after Hurricane Sandy,#8221; explains Susan Olinger, Sterling Horticultural Services, Flanders, N.J., and immediate past president of APLD. Most landscapers agree the essay trend crossing all regions is the increasing concern for handling stormwater runoff. More and criteria good analysis more municipalities are instituting stricter ordinances, and water fees are rising along with the creekbeds after a downpour. As a result, ecological concerns for rudd bonhoeffer, the pollution of groundwater, rivers, lakes and term of rizal bays are climbing higher and higher in clients#8217; consciousness. #8220;I#8217;m being asked more and more to come up with design approaches that incorporate the handling of stormwater runoff with native plantings and natural stone,#8221; says Terri Long, an Asheville, N.C.-based landscape designer in the Blue Ridge Mountains where many creekbeds wind through high-end properties. #8220;Rather than collecting water in catch basins and piping it away in drains, resulting in a generic, sterile look, the rudd bonhoeffer essay use of the dress code dry creek bed becomes not only a beautifying, natural-looking feature with a functional purpose, but also a green solution.#8221; It#8217;s not only regional considerations driving current trends, but also the shifting demographics of those who are now purchasing homes and bonhoeffer essay making the landscaping decisions. What used to be the realm of the Baby Boomers and dress code DINKS (dual income earners no kids a.k.a. Yuppies) is now relegated to rudd bonhoeffer the Gen Y/Millennial WINKS (single women income earners with no kids) and DACKS (dads at home caring for kids). Term Of Rizal. #8220;Millennial women are a larger buying demographic than female boomers; they are now 20 percent of all home buyers and representing one-third of the growth in home ownership since 1994,#8221; says McCoy. #8220;In addition, millennial men are taking an equal role as the bonhoeffer homemakers in domestic duties and raising the children.#8221; According to for applied the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of stay-at-home dads has doubled in the past decade due to the growing numbers of female breadwinners, men out of work, and the shift in men#8217;s lifestyle and career choices.
Now that young women are paying for landscaping projects and young dads are having more say about rudd bonhoeffer design, what does this mean for trends moving forward? #8220;It#8217;s a masculine and of rizal feminine balancing act in work, home and rudd life,#8221; explains McCoy. And that applies to landscaping installations. Homes, as well as outdoor living environments, are celebrating the masculine influence as the workplace did with women in previous decades. That means strong, bold statements, more simplicity, outdoor barbecue setups and man caves with techno entertainment options. #8220;Waterproof roof structures over the top of an outdoor patio space work great for this,#8221; says Matt Corrion, president and landscape architect with Denver-based Outdoor Design Group. Corrion lists roofed patios, which blend indoor and resume cook examples outdoor living spaces, as one of the leading trends in home design. Essay. #8220;Outdoor amenities can be protected by the weather.
Flat-screen televisions, ceiling fans, outdoor kitchens, bar areas, speakers and lighting can all be incorporated into this outdoor space. Overhead roof structures also create a more intimate feeling space, creating an outdoor room at a much lower cost than adding a fully-enclosed indoor room to a dwelling.#8221; Pastels Are Out; Contemporary Colors Are In. Criteria Analysis Essay. Stay-at-home dads are also influencing plant colors and rudd combinations. Princess pinks, butter-soft yellows and lipstick reds are in retreat. Both Benjamin Paints, which trends paint color interiors, and Pantone, which trends fashion color choices, give a thumbs-up to dress essay bold blues, periwinkle purples and celosia oranges. #8220;There has been a push to find new #8216;orange#8217; options for the landscape lately, and I see that continuing,#8221; attests Lee. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. It makes perfect sense then that according to good analysis Garden Media, blue pansies and purple violas are the rage; and red geraniums and yellow marigolds are passe. Also popular are colorful edibles, including blueberries, grapes, orange peppers and purple eggplant. Blacks, whites and grays continue to surge. These color trends align with contemporary landscape planting choices. McCoy says mono color and pairings of black and white in essay, the garden will continue their popularity.
HGTV selects white as the trendiest color for its bright light influence and enhancement of other colors. Interesting geometrics are taking a leap, too. McCoy says #8220;umbelliferous#8221; shapes those plants that carry flowers on thesis on women empowerment, the end of spoke-like stems are popular. Circular plantings are back, and wildly-overgrown amorphous and perfectly-sculpted geometric are being fused together. The landscaping trend continuing its full-steam boil across all demographics, particularly with millennials, is sustainability. Just ask any landscaper from the mainstream to the highly green circles about how difficult it is to operate a business without sustainable considerations. #8220;Across the board, it#8217;s all about low-maintenance landscapes, drought-tolerant turfs such as meadows, highly-efficient irrigation systems, perennial planting designs inspired by nature, plant #8220;communities#8221; (as opposed to monoculture) and adding edibles,#8221; says Zimmerman. Brad Blaeser, president of Milwaukee-based The Green Team is rudd, hopping with requests for natives, water retention/bio-filtration/green roof-type projects and edibles since he opened his then #8220;out-of-the-mainstream#8221; deep green landscaping door in 2006.
In addition, Blaeser is criteria good analysis essay, increasing his services in compost-type pickups, and for the first time he#8217;s seeing a surge in demand for natural playscapes and outdoor learning classrooms in his hardscape side of the business. Sabrena Schweyer of Salsbury-Schweyer, Akron, Ohio, agrees. #8220;Edibles, not only as vegetable gardening but also edible landscapes and permaculture plantings like food forests, are growing in demand,#8221; she says. Rudd Bonhoeffer. Schweyer also sees a new intertwining of resiliency, sustainability and placemaking in urban landscapes, as evidenced in the wildly popular new public spaces including New York#8217;s High Line and Houston#8217;s Discovery Green. How To: Keeping Up With the Trends. #8220;The majority of gardening information still comes from thesis on women empowerment, family and bonhoeffer essay friends (a.k.a. word-of-mouth), but websites, gardening blogs, Twitter and Youtube are gaining considerable ground#8221; as places landscape designers and architects use to keep up with the latest landscape trends, says Suzi McCoy, owner of Garden Media Group, Philadelphia. To educate his employees about landscaping trends, Tom Canete, owner of Canete Landscape Design Construction in northern New Jersey, is constantly reading trade magazines and networking with his peers. Chris Lee, president of for applied critical thinking, Dallas-based Earthworks, finds it easy to keep up with the trends in rudd bonhoeffer essay, Dallas. As he explains, #8220;since our market is just a little behind, we can look at term of rizal, the residential trends in other markets to incorporate here later.#8221; Both Zimmerman and McCoy can#8217;t say enough about the current homesteading trend, with 80 percent of Americans concerned about the health of the environment around them. The focus is on rudd essay, zen and happiness in dress essay, the garden, emulating a mini slice of the hobby farmer. That means heirloom varieties, plants that attract the rudd bonhoeffer essay #8220;B#8221; critters (birds, bees and criteria for a good butterflies), chickens, overgrown and rudd bonhoeffer oversized hanging baskets, windowsill herb garden planters, and, of course, sensory, fragrant and community gardens. And for the #8220;New Age#8221; millennial men seeking their true inner happiness, fermentation gardens for homemade beer and wine are trending high. On a recent visit to dress code essay London#8217;s Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, Tracy DiSabato-Aust couldn#8217;t help but realize that worldwide, gardeners are salivating for edibles. #8220;When the rudd essay Kew#8217;s iconic Palm House has stalks of corn growing in front of it, you know there is titles under psychology, some kind of shift going on,#8221; she says.
DiSabato-Aust is an Ohio-based Euro-trained landscape designer who is also a well-known author, TV personality and triathlete. DiSabato-Aust also experienced the #8220;IncrEdibles#8221; fall program at rudd, the Kew. #8220;Incorporating decorative vegetables into the garden alongside herbs and cut flowers is really cutting-edge.#8221; Popular for DiSabato-Aust#8217;s clients lately is to mix festive vegetable plants like ornamental kale, heirloom tomatoes and multiple colors of peppers with traditional varieties of sunflowers, dahlias and zinnias for cuttings. For A Essay. Blaeser agrees with DiSabato-Aust on American gardeners#8217; appetites for rudd essay, edibles. #8220;We continue to sell existing clients with traditional plantings and essay the concept of swapping some elements out with edibles, including herbs, hot peppers and bonhoeffer essay salad greens, to accompany some traditional annuals or even nontraditional perennials that can later be repurposed within their landscape or back into essay, our yard production,#8221; he says. Corrion sees the urban gardening trend for rudd, edibles jiving perfectly with the #8220;natural lawn#8221; trend, replacing traditional bluegrass with alternative turfgrasses, xeriscape plantings, monocultures of spreading shrubs or perennials, native plants, natural meadows or a combination of resume cook examples, these elements. #8220;Both can work well together,#8221; Corrion explains. #8220;Placing decorative paths between beds and installing attractive raised planters to keep the space looking a little more organized are both great additions.#8221; Akron Community Garden Tour, September 2013. Look for rudd bonhoeffer, Goin#8217; Green Guy (at 2:50 min point, 2nd guest speaker) commenting on the merits of participating in a community garden. My community garden planting a few miracles#8230;growing a new community. “Gardening is criteria analysis, cheaper than therapy#8230; and I might even get tomatoes.” “Gardening requires lots of water#8230;most of it in the form of perspiration.” “Why try to explain miracles to your kids when you can just have them plant a garden here this summer?” These are just a few of the things I heard in my community garden over opening weekend. It told me a lot about the bonhoeffer people involved and the expectations of what the new Glendale Community Garden means to this community. Bringing all Kinds of People Together.
Jan Green, Karen Edwards, Karen Starr and I spent a couple of institute, cold, and blustery early spring afternoons canvassing the lower part of our West Hill neighborhood with flyers. Jan Green is rudd bonhoeffer essay, a new resident of West Hill, and a retired nurse who grew up farming. Karen Edwards is a mom who owns some rental property near the garden and is a Farm-to-School teacher at a nearby Akron public school. Karen Starr is a mom, singer and local business owner of Hazeltree Interiors providing high quality home decor, interior design services and custom picture framing. “It#8217;s about on women empowerment time we see something like this happening here,” said one of a few folks in the neighborhood who actually answered our knocks at rudd essay, their door. “It#8217;s a longtime coming miracle for this forgotten area, that#8217;s for sure.” The Glendale Community Garden includes18 family plots, a berry patch, herbal spiral, twin compost bins, a trio of rain barrels, ornamental Zen zone and thinking more. So far it’s proven to be a miracle of sorts for rudd, the neighborhood. It’s raising eyebrows, connecting area businesses and examples changing strangers into neighbors.
Where else can retired grandmothers, girl scouts, I.T. nerds, firemen, soccer moms, hipsters, Gen-Xers, rappers and bohemians share a few laughs and get down and dirty together? What was once a cut-across vacant lot and occasional parking lot full of scraggly grass and gravel on Walnut Street next to bonhoeffer essay the famous historic Glendale Steps (an abandoned WPA project from the depression era) is now a green urban oasis where pedestrians stop to on women relax, observe and smile a little. It all started a few months ago with permission granted from the vacant lot’s landowner, and seed money from NeighborFoods, a newly-formed organization overseeing the new crop of community gardens popping up by the dozens around Akron. A Facebook page went up, attracting local gardening participants, and initial planning meetings were held at Pure Intentions: The Wheatgrass Growers, hosted by owner Kathy Evans. Rudd Essay. Landscaper and neighborhood resident Jeff Copley worked the sod cutter prepping the 18 plots. Then, it was time for the garden#8217;s Opening Weekend, May 9-11th. It started with the arrival of the Keep Akron Beautiful Community Pride Trailer laden with garden tools and equipment. Canton Road Garden Center followed by good, dumping more than 200 donated bags of Pro-Mix soil additive. Then, chilling rains blew in, postponing the tilling until the next day. When the sun came out the next morning, more than 20 volunteers gathered to take on the dirty work, removing countless rolls of sod, tilling and cultivating the 18 -10’ x 15’plots and adding Pro-Mix and rudd bonhoeffer essay compost.
Pat Arnold, the Pro-Mix soil rep, was on hand to instruct the gardeners on how to work Pro-Mix into the soil in addition to offering other valuable gardening tips. That afternoon, firemen from Fire Station #3 arrived with rain barrels, turned on their water hoses to fill the barrels, and helped heave the sod rolls into thesis, the haul-away truck. The owners of the 512 Fire Grill food truck who live across the street, fed hungry volunteers an authentic Puerto Rican-style lunch of empanadillas and alcapurrias, and provided lots of ice water. Urban farmer Alex Miller put up a twin pair of compost bins and Lisa Nunn, Director of Let#8217;s Grow Akron, offered moral support, gardening guidance, got the essay nearby fire hydrant tapped and institute for applied thinking leant a colorful sign to welcome visitors and gardeners alike. Mary Dee from Asian Services in Action, arrived just in bonhoeffer, time to welcome three new immigrant families from cook, Nepal who came with mustard seeds to plant. By the end of the day, all 18 plots were tilled, claimed and some even got planted. In the coming days, the rudd essay Girl Scouts prepped the paper of rizal berry patch, bricks were laid for a community herb spiral, a group squash and melon field was started and ornamental flowerbeds guarded the rudd essay entrance. It was all good! Soon, St. Vincent-St. Mary#8217;s 3rd and 4th graders will “grow a row for the hungry” by donating their produce to the Akron Regional Food Bank.
Come harvest time, the Salvation Army will open their kitchen and meeting space for food prep and dress preservation classes. The Glendale Community Garden is a grand new experiment for this long neglected neighborhood. In a few short weeks it’s already becoming a neighborhood miracle, joining a growing movement of over bonhoeffer, 5,000 community gardens in the U.S., according to the American Community Garden Association. “A garden can be more than just a place to stop and smell the roses,” says Steve Brooks, co-author of Green Guerillas: Revitalizing New York’s Urban Neighborhoods with Community Gardens, “All it takes is a small group of gardeners, who at the right place at the right time, motivated by ‘green’, will set a whole bunch of stuff in motion. Its spin-off effects can tip a neighborhood and titles o term psychology bring an bonhoeffer essay, entire blighted area out of a cycle of for a good analysis essay, indifference and decay.” Created out of organized chaos and tended by a lot of bonhoeffer, love and kinship, I have to believe our new Glendale Community Garden will do just that. Green marketing or greenwashing? Handle it with care. I was extremely honored to code be the featured speaker at bonhoeffer, this month#8217;s meeting of the thesis on women Stark County Green Business Roundtable held at essay, the North Canton Chamber of Commerce. My topic was all about the term of rizal effectiveness of green marketing.
The Roundtable is in its second year with its overall membership and current players#8217; enthusiasm growing. I was impressed with all the efforts that each member of the group is putting forward in the name of increased sustainability measures for rudd essay, their representative companies and for applied critical thinking organizations. To begin my presentation, I couldn#8217;t help but share the findings of Joel Makower. A San Franciso-based entrepreneur, writer (about a dozen books on the green economy and online news with GreenBiz ) and rudd bonhoeffer strategist on sustainable business, clean technology, and green marketing, Malkower is an thesis, overall skeptic when it comes to green marketing, but he also offers silver lining solutions to rudd bonhoeffer his #8220;downer#8221; points. Here is the true-to-form “Bad News” that Malkower has to offer the green marketer: (1) Sales of green products represent well under 1% of any given category and (2) Consumers don#8217;t want to term paper change in the name of Mother Earth or the greater good. But, Malkower does offer a couple bits of good news about green marketing: (1) Green services (reduce, re-use, co-op, sharing) is the only category working fairly okay as opposed to green products; and bonhoeffer essay B2B (as opposed to B2C) green marketing is effective.
Here are the B2B benefits that companies tend to recognize: Enhanced brand increase competitive advantage Increased productivity reduced costs Improved financial investment opportunity Minimized carbon risk improve energy efficiency Increased employee retention and titles o term recruitment. And finally, here are a few of the most effective green marketing tactics used today: 1) Be genuine Do what you claim to rudd be doing in your green marketing campaign and titles psychology business policies; NEVER, EVER GREENWASH as tempting as it may be; (2) Educate your customers: Let them know why it matters to support green products and services. Tell them what the benefit are beyond “saving the planet” (also known as ROE—Return on Environment); and finally, (3) Give your customers an opportunity to participate by bonhoeffer essay, personalizing the benefits of positive environmental action for themselves.
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How to Write the essay, Best Nursing Cover Letter. A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as important as a well crafted nursing resume. When done right, cover letters are a key factor in getting a nursing candidate’s foot in the door. Of course, nursing candidates understand this so they spend time researching how to write good cover letters. The problem is that the vast majority of readily available information on thesis nursing cover letters is bonhoeffer uniform and titles o term under antiquated. As a result, the vast majority of nursing cover letters read exactly the same and fall well short of piquing the reader’s interest. So in this blog post, we’ll cover the basic items to review before sending a cover letter, summarize the conventional approach to nursing cover letters and essay discuss its shortcomings, and offer a unique formula that will wow employers and land you an interview. Covering the nursing cover letter basics. It’s critical to carefully review your cover letter for the basics before sending it out to professional contacts or prospective employers.
What are the basics? We’re referring to things like grammar and spelling. As obvious as these basics may be, a very large percentage of cover letters include basic mistakes. So be certain to review your cover letter for dress, the following issues: Spelling : Yes, it’s a good idea to use the spell checker. However, you must also carefully review your cover letter for bonhoeffer essay, errors that the spell checker won’t pick up.
For example, you may have typed “form” instead of resume cook, “from.” And yes, some recruiters and hiring managers are that picky. Grammar : The best way to review grammar is to rudd bonhoeffer read your cover letter out thesis empowerment loud and word-for-word. If you’re unsure if the grammar is correct, then try to simplify the caption in question. Bonhoeffer! Simpler is usually better anyway. On Women! Correct Employer Information : Be sure you’ve used the correct employer name, address, contact person, and contact person’s title. It’s easy to lose site of this when you’re applying for multiple jobs and using the same cover letter template. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay! Date : Be sure to use the current date. We regularly see cover letters with last year’s date, most likely because the candidate used a template from their previous job search. Your Contact Information : Make sure your contact information is current and correct. Congruence : Make sure that the information you provide in your cover letter matches the information you provide in your resume and/or job application. General framing for your nursing cover letter.
With the basic considerations out of the way, we can begin to frame or conceptualize the cover letter. For starters, it’s important to consider your angle . Are you responding to a job advertisement? Are you sending your cover letter and resume to a professional contact to criteria analysis essay be forwarded to someone involved in rudd bonhoeffer essay the hiring process? Are you engaging in a general inquiry expressing interest in o term under psychology working for rudd bonhoeffer, the organization in some capacity while having no professional contacts within the organization and on women despite the fact that there is no job advertised? Your angle should guide how you frame your cover letter and dictate a small but important set of information to include. Rudd! Consider the following: Job Advertisements : If you’re applying to critical thinking a job advertisement, then your cover letter should reference the advertisement, job ID if applicable, and Job Title. Professional Contacts : If you have a professional contact within the organization, then your cover letter should include the name of the professional contact, their title, your relationship to the contact, and rudd bonhoeffer perhaps a few references to 2nd degree contacts and conversations you’ve had pertaining to the job in question and/or organization. General Job Inquiries : If you’re merely expressing a general interest in potential job opportunities with an organization, then be clear about titles under psychology what role(s) you’re interested in. The conventional approach to rudd essay nursing cover letters: Now that we’ve covered the basics and have an idea of how to criteria good analysis essay frame the cover letter, it’s time to move on to the meat of the letter.
A Google search for “nursing cover letter” returns pages from many reputable and seemingly authoritative sources. You’ll find pages from Ohio State University, Johns Hopkins, Monster.com, Duke University, and many others. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay! All of these sources utilize virtually the same general cover letter template. Their general template recommends the following. First, start your cover letter with a brief introductory paragraph that quickly gets to the point.
Introduce yourself professionally, let the reader know why you’re writing and do so enthusiastically. You might also praise the employer on some recent accomplishment or milestone they’ve achieved. Second, include two to three “strength paragraphs.” These are paragraphs that describe your professional strengths. The general recommendation is to describe how you’re a good fit for the position in question. On Women! It’s often suggested that you draw on the job description for details about what the rudd essay, employer is seeking. Then, describe how your skills and experience fit the criteria. In doing so, you might describe some past experiences and even offer some stats and psychology numbers for emphasis.
Finally, end the cover letter with a brief conclusion paragraph. Bonhoeffer Essay! Recap your interest in the job. Once again summarize why you’re a good fit. Perhaps offer some well wishes and titles o term psychology good sentiments. Essay! And let them know that you’ll attempt to contact them and they can contact you at their convenience to set up an interview.
What’s wrong with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters? There are several problems with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters. Institute For Applied Critical Thinking! First, it does nothing to set you apart from the rest of the candidates. Almost every single candidate is taking this approach. It’s so pervasive that cover letters for different candidates often read the same exact way. Everyone is drawing from the job description which is usually very generic. As a result, they’re all explaining how their prior experience makes them organized or clinically experienced enough to do the job.
Or how their orientation towards team work will help them fit right in. Once the recruiter or hiring manager has read this cover letter a dozen times, they’re simply tuned out. Second, the rudd bonhoeffer, conventional approach fosters a tendency to summarize the resume. O Term Under Psychology! Candidates often use the same exact information included on their resume when writing their cover letters to describe why they’re a good fit for the job. This is a waste of valuable space and time, but it’s almost impossible to avoid. A resume is a summary of your work history and experiences as they pertain to rudd your qualifications for the job in question.
Meanwhile, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is recommending that you describe why you’re qualified for the job. These are very closely related. Third, the paper, conventional approach to rudd nursing cover letters is a passive approach. It turns the for applied critical thinking, candidate into a passive receiver of details provided by the employer and then asks that they reword their resume to address the details. Not only is this a poor stance for job seekers, it doesn’t consider the reality that employers routinely offer canned job descriptions that don’t really offer any actionable intelligence for the candidate. An alternative approach to nursing cover letters.
The conventional approach was fine in 1986 but it’s not up to snuff for the information and networking age. Information is now so readily available that if you’re focused only on the job description when writing your cover letter, then you’re missing some major opportunities to separate yourself from the pack. Essay! And separating from the pack is the primary goal of this alternative approach to nursing cover letters because it will greatly increase your potential for under psychology, landing the interview. The question becomes, how do you find and use information regarding the targeted employer to craft an amazing cover letter? You start by completely changing the guiding principle behind your approach to the cover letter. Remember, the guiding principle of the rudd bonhoeffer essay, conventional approach is to draw from the thesis on women, job description to develop “strength paragraphs” that describe why you’re a good fit for the job.
Again, this a passive approach that steers nursing candidates to rely on information provided by a job description that is often vague and confined to the minimum requirements. By contrast, our alternative approach is bonhoeffer essay based on sales and marketing principles. After all, a cover letter is a sales vehicle, plain and simple. You’re using it to sell yourself to the employer. Paper! This sales based approach to cover letters fosters an rudd essay, aggressive mind-set by recommending that you seek out additional information beyond the job description which will be used to term paper help you develop your sales pitch. Now there are many different approaches to selling things. Bonhoeffer Essay! We’re going to focus on perhaps the most successful sales approach, “problem solving.” Essentially, you’re going to define a problem facing the employer and describe why you’re the solution . In doing so, you will draw on your skills and experience in a much more natural way. And the empowerment, exercise will almost certainly give the opportunity to offer information that isn’t included on bonhoeffer your resume. Trust us, this is much easier than it sounds!!
Start by researching the for applied thinking, employer. Researching the employer is the essay, first step in crafting your cover letter. Begin with a visit to examples the employer’s web site. Look for a blog or a “News Room.” If the employer has a very limited website with no blog or company news, then review the “About” page or anything you can find that will offer insight. The great news for nurses is rudd bonhoeffer essay that many hospitals and healthcare employers maintain regularly updated and highly detailed blogs and “News Rooms.” Check out this example from resume, Swedish Medical in Washington state. There’s even a “Tag Cloud” on the right side that will help you locate information about specific units and various specialties!! Next, find the rudd bonhoeffer essay, employer on all the major social media channels. Again, most employers are using these channels to disseminate information that is criteria analysis essay important to them and their clientele.
The easiest way to bonhoeffer find a company’s social media channels is to locate the social media icon buttons on the company’s website. You know, the buttons that typically say something like, “Connect with us.” This approach is much better than going straight the social media outlet and searching for the company which usually returns poor results. For example, we were easily directed to Swedish Medical’s Facebook Page by clicking on the Facebook button on their website. However, a search for “Swedish Medical Center” on Facebook didn’t include the official company page within the dress essay, top 50 results. Next, check with your own social networks to see if you’re connected to someone who works for the employer in question or knows someone who does . Don’t be afraid to rudd essay post an inquiry on for a good analysis your own social media accounts to find out if anyone you know has any connections to the employer in rudd bonhoeffer essay question. Criteria Good! You might be surprised by what you find. I’ve never been to Washington state and I was able to find 6 2nd degree connections to rudd essay Swedish Medical within my network in a minimal amount of time.
You can also search for news articles on dress code essay the employer on both national and local levels . For example, a search for “Swedish Medical” on the Seattle Post Intelligencer returned 419 results. A search of rudd bonhoeffer essay, Google’s News database returned 97 results. If you’re still not able to find any actionable intelligence after conducting these searches, then you can conduct a search for information on the industry or market niche in thesis question . Rudd Essay! Not every nurse is applying for jobs at hospitals or other large healthcare organizations that have the resources to attract and maintain the kind of media presence described above. You might be applying for jobs as a school nurse, or jobs at small addiction treatment centers, or some other form of small employer. In these cases, check for good analysis essay, an industry or niche association that advocates for rudd essay, the interests of employers in the industry or niche in question.
At this point, you’re probably wondering what exactly you’re looking for while doing your research. You’re looking for information you can present as a problem, or potential problem, for on women, which you are the solution . You see, almost everything can be presented as a potential challenge or problem facing an employer. For example, if a hospital just achieved Magnet Recognition, then maintaining it will be a challenge. The same goes for any award or recognition an employer has achieved. Of course, you can also look for actual problems that an employer is facing. For example, an employer may have a high employee turnover rate, or they maybe in the process of attempting to rudd bonhoeffer essay achieve some goal or milestone, or they may be undergoing an criteria for a, EMR conversion in the near future.
Of course, you need to be able to convince the rudd bonhoeffer essay, reader that you can help with the for applied thinking, problems you define. So merely defining a problem isn’t enough. You need to define a problem for which you can convincingly sell yourself as the solution . Using the examples above, you may have worked with an employer who turned around their employee turnover problems, or with an bonhoeffer essay, employer who achieved the same goal or milestone, or you may have experience with the EMR that the employer is converting to. In conducting your research, start at the base level and work your way out. Institute! For example, if you’re applying for rudd essay, a Staff Nurse position in a hospital’s Intensive Care Unit, then start with trying to find information that is pertinent to the unit. These problems will likely be in institute critical line with your expertise. From the rudd bonhoeffer essay, unit level, work your way out to the industry level to identify a broader range of problems for which you may be the solution. It’s very likely that you’ll find multiple problems to dress define, and that’s great. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay! You can easily touch on two to three problems and describe how you’re the solution for dress essay, each in the span of your 1 page cover letter. If you are unable to find any problems to define after exhausting all of your research options, then you can use the job description provided by rudd the employer (assuming there is one) to code define problems. In doing so, you’ll write a much more powerful cover letter than you would have using the rudd essay, conventional approach described above.
Why is this alternative approach to nursing cover letters better? The problem/solution approach to cover letters is better than the conventional approach for institute critical, several reasons. First, you’ll differentiate yourself from the rudd bonhoeffer essay, pack. Even if everyone were to use this formula (which they won’t), they’d all find and term of rizal define different problems and/or offer different solutions. Second, you’ll demonstrate that you’re knowledgeable about the employer.
Third, your cover letter will read like it was written by a human instead of bonhoeffer essay, a robot. Your cover letter will actually be interesting to for applied read!! Finally, you’ll be selling yourself to the employer as a solution to their problems as opposed to regurgitating key points from your resume. How to write the best nursing cover letter. To recap the steps: Consider your angle when framing your cover letter. This is described above under the rudd, heading “General framing for your cover letter.” Include an introduction paragraph that quickly lets the reader know why you’re writing.
Define problems and describe how you are the solution. Sell your skills and experiences as solutions. Be sure to make use of essay, all research options to rudd bonhoeffer find problems that are not included in the job description. O Term Paper Under! Close the rudd bonhoeffer, deal in a conclusion paragraph that describes the next step. Let the reader know that you’d like to paper under discuss these issues in greater detail and learn more about the challenges they are facing. Offer your contact information and rudd bonhoeffer essay let them know you’ll be contacting them. Review your cover letter for the basics described above under the heading “Covering the cover letter basics.” 5 Things that New Grad RNs and Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an for a good essay, effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. Rudd! 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for nursing jobs.
We provide. Do you have a sample cover letter? I get the problem solving concept but would like to see an example of how to convey myself as a solution. My apologies, Sarah, but we do not have a sample cover letter. We’ll work on for applied critical posting one though! Thank you Kyle! That helps a lot! Thank you for these blog posts!
I’m trying to go back to work after staying-at-home for three years with my kids (which seems like an rudd, even tougher situation than being a new grad). Prior to that I had very minimal nursing experience (2 years total) in two niche type jobs: school nursing and on women travel medicine. I’d like a job in mother/baby and know people on the unit. Rudd Bonhoeffer! Trying to draw attention to the extensive CEU’s I’ve completed recently all related to OB. I’m also working on certification in cook a Neonatal Resusitation program (NRP). 1. Is the cover letter a good place to explain the large gap in essay work history (i.e. being a stay-at-home-mom)? Can I take a moment there to highlight social achievements since I don’t have any work achievements? 2. How do I sell myself as the solution when I have so little irrelevant nursing experience? (maybe there’s no answer for this)… what i do know is that the resume examples, competing hospital in the area just opened their own Labor and rudd bonhoeffer Delivery and are recruiting OB nurses from the hospital I’m applying to. Any advice is much appreciated! Great questions, Adrienne.
Yes, it’s okay to use a brief portion of your cover letter to address your experience as a stay-at-home mom. You may even use some of what you’ve learned as a stay-at-home mom to relate that you’re the solution to a problem the institute for applied, hospital faces, or a goal they’re trying to achieve. Bonhoeffer! Often times, a hospital’s/unit’s challenges and goals require more than just technical skills. Term Paper! You may be passionate about something or have indirect experience that will be an asset to them. The important thing is to illustrate that you are aware of the bonhoeffer, employer’s challenges and goals and you understand that their employees play a pivotal role in addressing them.
I hope this helps!
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Essays on Management: Self-management. “Dreams come true if you want them to, and if you want them to rudd bonhoeffer it is up to resume examples you.” The lightning tree. Self-management can underpin a high degree of rudd self-realisation and self-determination in a job. It requires the ability to manage oneself in relation to others and code essay, the wider organisational context, and when this is mastered one has high autonomy. The combination of autonomy, competence and relatedness delivers a high degree of rudd self-determination. This in turn enables you to move from survival to higher forms of self-realisation. Under? Income and its net worth concomitant is therefore a priority threshold which, once achieved, allows you to focus on working for daily meaning not just daily bread. Self-management in a job involves skills and behaviours contributing to essay both individual and organisational objectives. Self-management is not asocial autonomy and a license to code essay do what you like. Rather it involves autonomy grounded in competence, in rudd contribution to criteria for a good others, and in professionalism.
Professionalism involves relatedness to others. Rudd Bonhoeffer? It is behaviour that cannot be captured in formal rules but which contributes to organisational purposes. It is unprofessional for example to make someone look foolish in front of an thesis on women empowerment, external audience, even though there may be no formal rules against it. Bonhoeffer Essay? Professionalism depends on the tacit mandates people give each other. The most important self-management ability is good manners, and more broadly the ability to work with others. Work is an inherently social phenomenon.
Almost no-one works alone effectively. If you can’t collaborate and work with people and get the best from them then you will fail – and no amount of mathematical qualifications, rote learning or computer skills will help you. You will meet lots of rude and obnoxious people in your life – always treat them better than they treat you. Always recognise you are part of a team and this should be reflected in “we” language not “I” Ianguage. Empowerment? It is possible to play a team game in ways psychologically equivalent to working for yourself. Important elements in self-management are self-analysis, and deciding what you want to do in your life. Rudd Essay? Self-analysis is hard to do but repays the effort.
It involves systematic questions that answered create value through behavioural change. What are my strengths? What are my values? What am I interested in? What am I good at? Am I an orchid who thrives best in a specialised hothouse environment, or a dandelion that survives in many different environments? What is my contribution, and what part of it is cook, unique or at bonhoeffer essay least unusual? Self-awareness means knowing when you are stressed or exposed to health risks, knowing when to bend rather than break.
It can also mean turning stress to your advantage. Moments of depression can force you to reflect on things, and to institute for applied critical thinking change. Sometimes it helps to write down all the good things you have done and all the things you do well. You might also ask yourself what your weaknesses are. There are some minimum threshold competencies needed in the workplace, such as literacy, numeracy and foundational computer skills. If you lack these, you must develop them. However you should not try to essay be good at everything or spend too much time addressing your minor weaknesses. Instead you should primarily focus on your strengths and abilities and resume cook, therefore nullify your weaknesses. Ability is a duty as well as a property right.
It is developed rather than gifted. If you are making your talents and rudd bonhoeffer essay, abilities productive you are doing your duty to society and yourself, and a side effect of this is you will be successful in your chosen field, including creating property rights in it. You should decide what kind of life you want and titles under, then choose a job that will support this. What life you want to lead is more important than what job you want to do, for rudd bonhoeffer, the latter is a subset of the former. You should cast around for a job as if all you’d done previously was prepare for that job. Go for dress code essay, what you want to do rather than keep lots of options open. It is essay, best to examples be a master of one trade than a jack of all, however you need to rudd essay have the cross-cutting skills to adapt to change.
You need to decide what kind of work environment will best develop you. The mysteries of the trade you have chosen are in the air so you need to resume cook breathe the bonhoeffer essay, right air. Having decided on the work environment in critical which you are likely to flourish, for any specific job it is important to ask, is it socially useful, will I be interested, and rudd bonhoeffer, can I succeed in this job? It is important to check out institute thinking, who your manager will be before accepting a job. That person needs to rudd bonhoeffer be on the interviewing panel, and it is risky to take a job without having pinned down who you will report to. Paper Of Rizal? Organisations should provide to candidates detailed resumes of managers when recruiting new staff so people can know who they are reporting to. This would avoid unpleasant surprises when people end up badly matched. You should report to only one manager as multiple reporting lines often lead to rudd essay ambiguity, conflict, and your work being misinterpreted or undervalued.
Once you are in a new job, how should you approach it? You must firstly direct your efforts to titles paper under the organisational purpose. Ask what the essay, job requires, don’t just keep doing what got you the job in the first place. You must then focus on this and not be distracted. Any worthwhile job requires your utmost attention. A mental discipline is to focus entirely on your current job as if it is the only one you will ever do. Titles O Term Paper Under? Treating a job as a stepping stone elsewhere means concentration will waver and much learning will be ephemeral rather than deeply embedded. Self-regulation is central to work performance and it requires sustained focus. Focus means concentrating on some things and dropping others. It can mean delegation.
John D. Rockerfeller’s delegation philosophy was “…nobody does anything if he can get anybody else to do it.” You must be self-aware in your new job and continuously learning. It is important to search for rudd bonhoeffer essay, the enduring learning from an thesis on women empowerment, event or a job. In a new job you must share your learning selflessly, rather than treat it as a competitive advantage. If you know you can succeed in a job you will be filled with well-grounded self-confidence. A combination of fear, self-awareness and seeing things from a fresh perspective can underpin self-belief and confidence. Essay? You should welcome moments of dress essay fear or inadequacy because this can be motivating and helps you focus. When you then start to perform well in the job you can forget about fear because it has done its job in focusing your mind and making you productive.
In the early stages of a job it is important to define the desired external results and the outputs to deliver, and also to recognise that management focus may depart from that. It can mean keeping two narratives in essay your head at the same time. One is the ideal of what you think you are working for and should try to achieve. Criteria Good Analysis Essay? The other is the one you may need to bonhoeffer follow to survive. In the short term the term, two should influence each other, in the medium term they should be brought into harmony, and over rudd bonhoeffer, the longer haul the first should prevail. Working in any job requires conformance to what others expect.
If you own your own business you must still conform to what your customers want. This does not mean you cannot be yourself, however it does means you have to fit within the rules and build up credibility to earn the right to suggest how rules might change. Over time, and as you carve out a unique contribution within an organisation, it is thesis on women, possible to play the team game in ways as satisfying as working for yourself. Once established in a job you can start to essay observe whether it is cook, a good place to bonhoeffer work in the longer term. This can involve a series of questions you can ask yourself.
Are you respected as a person? Are you given the tools to do the job? Do people notice what you are achieving? Is the organisation interested in term paper the wider skills and knowledge you may have? Have you been asked what you have done in the past, what hobbies you have, what languages you speak, and has the organisation attempted to harness these in the job where it can? An important part of self-management is management upwards. Bonhoeffer? This is challenging when managers, politicians, board members and top academics lack self-awareness or any sense of humility. “Great man syndrome” occurs when someone achieves pre-eminently in one field and then decides he is an expert in titles paper psychology other (and sometimes in all) fields. Knut Hamsun won a Nobel prize in literature before deciding he was a great philosopher and political scientist, leading to him writing an obituary for Adolf Hitler described him as a “warrior for mankind”. People of true excellence in any field seldom find a need to rudd talk about it. Institute Critical? When faced with self-puffery in others an important skill is to feign subservience or awe (while still enjoying a private laugh to yourself). Managing your manager is critical to his or her own as well as your performance.
The key priority must be to make the boss effective. This means ensuring managers look good in the eyes of rudd bonhoeffer their own manager. It is important to establish how managers learn and what troubles them. Never underrate your manager and thesis on women, never tell her what she may want to bonhoeffer hear. Institute For Applied Critical? It is important to tell the truth, even though it may be uncomfortable.
Be prepared to ask lots of questions, be a sounding board, challenge any complacent thinking, and once a decision is made it needs to be supported. You will very likely have differences with your manager, however never bad mouth your manager, team or organisation. Bonhoeffer? Your manager will feel as vulnerable as you and will sometimes get things wrong. Always support your organisation and the purposes it is criteria analysis essay, working for. If you feel your organisation is dysfunctional or working for the wrong purposes, try and reform it within. If that’s not possible, leave rather than get bitter and rudd bonhoeffer essay, cynical. Code Essay? This calls for a balancing act where you should both give yourself to your job and also be prepared to bonhoeffer essay leave, in the sense of having the capabilities to move elsewhere if need be. It is important to remain visible. Sometimes the least effective people have high busyness and visibility yet their contribution to external results may be negligible.
Some key workers perceived as plodders may be most effective, however their invisibility is risky for titles o term paper psychology, them. No matter how important your work is, what is invisible will not be valued. You are only as good as your last game, and this must have be seen. Once you have made some progress in a new job it is important to seek feedback on performance. In the rudd bonhoeffer essay, old Mafioso expression, “keep your friends close to for applied you and your enemies even closer.” If you need to nominate people for 360 degree feed-back choose those you consider actual or potential enemies. This means you discover where your vulnerabilities might be, as perceived by others. You will commonly find your “enemies” may not be so hostile after all, and may teach you some positive things about yourself. You might even describe them as “friendenemies” – friends and enemies. Once you are well established in a job you must think carefully about how it relates to your identity. Never conflate your work and your personal identity. People have multiple identities and shift between them, adopting the identity that is bonhoeffer essay, most relevant to a specific context.
People’s multiple identities mean they have overlapping interests with others, who in turn have different identities in other dimensions. For Applied Critical Thinking? Specific salient identities may be irrelevant in markets. Hindus and rudd, Muslims have a different world view, yet they still buy the same smartphones. Thesis On Women? It is important to choose which identity should dominate your self-management and others’ perception of you in different contexts. In the workplace it is your work identity that must be salient and other identities need to be in the background. Don’t treat your job as an extension of essay your family or your social life.
You should not try and o term under, be the life of the party when at work, nor should you be work-obsessed when partying or on holiday. A private organisation may often be a product of the conflation of an individual or family’s identity with the organisation. Angus Tait created Tait Communications as an act of existential purpose and it outlives him. Bonhoeffer Essay? If you are an entrepreneur or run your own business you may choose to conflate your identity or self-esteem with a job. Your performance commitment might be enhanced by this. However your ability to cook deliver on those commitments may be reduced since you will not be able to rudd essay see from term paper, outside your business, nor will you have much ability to radically change how you perceive and therefore manage your business. Some who conflate their job or business with their identity can stifle new people and they often dread retirement or redundancy because their world would be empty. People need meaningful outside interests and outside self-identity. Your worth should depend on who you are in the wider sense, rather than what you do. Many Maori understand this full well. It is rudd, possible to be an resume, iwi leader and also work in a humble job that is routinised and does not permit much discretion, let alone leadership.
It is damaging to essay society when individuals win positional authority confuse their jobs with their self-identity. In modern times, most people from the Prime Minister down have to accept that at some stage they will be sacked or removed from paper under psychology, a job by voters, employers or customers. Even if they survive these events, father time will catch up because ageing is the one thing no one can escape. When a chief executive acts as if he is rudd essay, bigger than his organisation it is time for term, him to leave. If a chief executive is rudd bonhoeffer, “not replaceable” it means he has done critical damage to “his” organisation’s future sustainability. When anyone conflates identity fully with the job his life can be gone when that job disappears for for a analysis essay, reasons beyond his control. For any employee, especially more vulnerable ones, a parallel or alternative career, or multiple identities in which they have standing is critical for psychic buffering.
If things go wrong you still have standing outside work, and perhaps even an rudd bonhoeffer essay, alternative career. Titles Paper Under? It is possible to create the option of turning a hobby into a career. Self-management requires time management. Time devoted to one task cannot be devoted to another and so focus is needed to get the best out of time. While it is possible to ramp up energy levels to meet a challenge, time cannot be created out of nothing. It cannot be stored up like gold coins or reciprocated favours. It cannot be replaced with other resources.
The arrow of time moves only in one direction and once lost it can never be regained. Time therefore must be managed and time management is rudd bonhoeffer essay, a discipline that can be imposed externally but is best self-generated. Killers of productive time include frivolous email, internet or social media use, unnecessary or lengthy meetings, and discursive, unfocused discussions. Multi-tasking works for dress code, foxes but not for rudd essay, hedgehogs. If you prefer to do one thing at criteria for a good a time, when you finish writing something at the end of the day leave a sentence half-finished so you can get back into it next day without wasting time in “cognitive switching”.
By far the worse destroyer of time and rudd bonhoeffer, of value is poor project inception, weak task assignment and unsystematic project execution, leading to poorly directed work, waste and resume examples, rework. For some people, working from bonhoeffer essay, home is effective, and thinking at cook home or outside work is often valuable. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay? However working from term paper, home is bonhoeffer, a poor substitute for effective time management during the o term paper, working day. Managing time means setting bounds around it in ways recognising its scarcity and its inelasticity. Time management requires integration of otherwise fragmented time, and effective structure around it.
It requires external disciplines whether factory whistles, deadlines, and rudd bonhoeffer essay, challenging oneself to get as much done as possible within constraints. If you are sitting an exam, don’t think you started with 100% and will lose marks with every mistake. Think of yourself starting with nothing and criteria good analysis essay, earning marks with everything you do. Once disciplines are in place, time management can involve an easy pace, structure, system and method, and bonhoeffer, work can be steady not feverish. Being frugal with time can mean micro-improvements allowing tiny time-saving to criteria essay accumulate into essay valuable chunks of time. Good Analysis? An example is through better writing that communicates crisply and succinctly, saving people small amounts of essay time that cumulatively matter. Work will involve conflict. Whenever it occurs de-escalate as quickly as possible.
You should also reflect on for applied critical thinking whether your position is the right one. If you are pointing the finger at bonhoeffer essay someone else you may be pointing at yourself. People’s behaviour should be separated from their individual identity. You must always protect the inviolable dignity of the criteria for a essay, other person, and if you have to defeat them you must give them “a golden bridge home”. This does not mean actively helping those behaving badly, or saving the bacon of bonhoeffer those whose bacon ought not be saved. Withdrawal of your support from those undeserving is a meaningful sanction without maliciousness.
It is resume cook examples, like Ajax in bonhoeffer essay the underworld turning his back on Odysseus who cheated him out of his armour. It is important to be realistic about your job without being cynical. People who give too much to a job are often hiding problems in their lives and are not especially productive. The most difficult people at work often have unhappy home lives. You have nothing to thesis prove at work if you are happy at home. Work is social but not a shallow form of socialising. Homo sapiens are a highly invasive, weedy species, however they are also a social species. When brilliant people fail to essay fulfil their potential it is typically because of poor manners or low emotional or social intelligence, and sometimes all these. However, social intelligence can be used for malicious purposes. Hitler, Stalin and any number of paedophiles and conmen had extraordinary social intelligence, while many “nerds” are quite gentle creatures who would be kind to others, were they to notice their existence.
Metaphorically, work is flatting together and cooperating for five days a week – it is not a marriage. Titles O Term Psychology? It is also a relationship that will end in dissolution at some stage, and is not till death us do part.
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An Editor#39;s Guide to Perfecting Your Resume. Bonhoeffer! Adrian Granzella Larssen. On Women Empowerment! You know that you should edit your resume before you send it off in the world, making sure it’s error-free. But to make sure that resume is in rudd bonhoeffer the best possible shape? You should really take the editing process a few steps further. Here’s the thing: Editing is more than just giving something a once-over to eliminate egregious typos and grammar mistakes.
It’s really about looking at titles paper psychology, something with a critical eye, then making changes to rudd, ensure it’s the best it can possibly be. Paper Of Rizal! And that’s what you want for your resume, right? From someone who edits all day, every day for a living, here’s a five-step editing plan that will take your resume from bonhoeffer, good to full-blown awesome (and—of course—eliminate the typos, too). When I look at an article for the first time, I have to resist the urge to titles, fix typos or make style changes (and believe me, as an essay editor, it’s hard). But it’s important—the first thing I need to institute for applied thinking, determine is whether the bonhoeffer piece is working as a whole. O Term Psychology! Is this right for our publication? Is the message of the bonhoeffer article the one we want to send? Are there any major gaps or sections that are superfluous? On that first read of your resume, try to do the same thing. Ignore typos or formatting issues, and think about the overall message your resume is institute for applied, sending : Does this sell you as the perfect candidate for the types of roles you’re seeking? Are there any gaps between the experience on the page and the experience required for bonhoeffer, the job?
If so, are there ways in institute for applied which you could bridge those gaps ? What makes your experience stand out among other, similar candidates? Does the top third of rudd, your resume serve as a hook to get the hiring manager to read more? Is there anything on examples your resume that doesn’t need to rudd essay, be there? Pro Tip: Look at the LinkedIn profiles of people at your level in your field, and see how they tell their stories. Term Paper! Which ones are most compelling or stand out the most? See what you can learn from them and how you can apply those lessons to your own resume.
Step 2: Scrutinize the Bullets and Details. As editors, we ask constantly ask ourselves if each word is the best one, if a sentence structure is right, if there’s anything that could be said more clearly, effectively, or quickly. And oh, do we add examples! Why say something if you can show it? It makes for bonhoeffer essay, better writing and a more interesting read. Thinking! Walk through your resume again. Your job at this point is to look at every section, every sentence, and every word, and essay determine if there’s a better way to get your point across.
For each bullet point, ask: Is this the strongest possible language you could use? Can anything be said more clearly? Or in fewer words? Is there any language that someone outside of institute for applied critical, your company or industry wouldn’t understand? Could anything benefit from examples? Can anything be quantified? Can you show a benefit ? Are any words used over rudd essay and over? Can they be replaced with more creative language? Pro Tip: Have a friend who’s not in your field read your bullet points, and ask what he or she thinks your strongest achievements are. Do you agree? If not, adjust so the most important ones really stand out.
Every so often, I’ll edit what I think is a great, well-written article—and realize suddenly that one of the source’s names is spelled wrong. O Term Paper Under Psychology! I’ll take a closer look and essay see that—wait—a book title is incorrect, research numbers are not quite right, and of rizal that other “facts” in essay the article need a second look. It’s a good idea to do this for your resume, too. It can happen even with the term of rizal right intentions—I, for example, recently realized that my resume said “3 million” on a figure that most certainly should have been 1 million. Whoops. Read every word on your resume again, this time asking yourself: Are the companies you worked for named the same thing? Still located in the same city?
Are your position titles accurate? Are your employment dates correct? Are all of the numbers and percentages you use to describe increases, quotas, budgets, savings, and achievements (reasonably) accurate? Pro Tip: In the editorial world, we have to make sure every number we print is 100% accurate, but you have a bit more leeway with your resume. As long as you’re reasonably sure that you increased customer satisfaction, fundraising numbers, or sales 25%, don’t worry about having the “official” numbers to prove it. Bonhoeffer! As I well know, you can work intently on a document for three hours and somehow not notice that you’ve used “their” instead of “there” or mistaken “bran” for critical thinking, “brand.” So, proofreading one last time is a step you can’t skip. I do recommend having someone else look your resume over rudd bonhoeffer essay (even us editorial word nerds hire proofreaders). But before you do, proof word by word, asking yourself: Are there any typos? Wrong word usage? Does each bullet point end with a period (or not)? Either is fine, just be consistent.
Are you using the serial comma (or not) throughout? Pro Tip: When proofreading, it’s helpful to temporarily change the font, or to term of rizal, read your resume from the bottom up—your eyes get used to reading a page one way, and rudd bonhoeffer essay can often catch new errors when you mix the format up. When I worked for a print magazine, I’d often submit what I thought was a perfect final draft of an article—until I’d get a proof from our designer. More often than not, my masterpiece would need some adjustments to look right on the page: shortening the copy so that it didn’t require a miniature-sized font, or lengthening a paragraph so that one word didn’t hang over on a line by itself, for example. Because part of for applied critical thinking, great writing is making it look great, too. While you don’t have to essay, send your resume off to dress, a graphic designer, do keep in mind that presentation is important, and rudd bonhoeffer that a few adjustments to for a good analysis essay, your text can make a big difference in how it looks. Give it a final once-over with a designer’s eye, considering: Does the page look visually appealing?
Is the bonhoeffer essay page overly cluttered? Is the font size too small? Is it difficult to read? Is the for applied critical font size and rudd bonhoeffer essay format for each section consistent? Does the layout make sense? Is your contact information easily findable? Pro Tip: Make your document easier to paper, skim by rudd adding divider lines between sections. Check out section three of this great guide to resume formatting from LifeClever for instructions. Photo of for applied thinking, pen and rudd bonhoeffer essay paper courtesy of Shutterstock . Adrian was The Muse’s very first employee (ask her about the early days!) who built the Muse editorial team from the ground up.
Now, she serves as Editor-at-Large, launching new content products and sharing expert career advice with Muse audiences online and off. Of Rizal! When she’s not Musing, you’ll find her planning her next dinner party or international vacation. Bonhoeffer Essay! Say hi on Twitter and Instagram. Cook! Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Rudd bonhoeffer essay
Downsizing the Federal Government. Your Guide to Cutting Federal Spending. The Federal Emergency Management Agency: Floods, Failures, and Federalism. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is the lead federal agency for rudd bonhoeffer disaster preparedness, response, and relief. FEMA’s budget fluctuates from year to year, but spending has trended sharply upwards in recent decades.
The agency spent $22 billion in fiscal 2013 and $10 billion in thesis fiscal 2014. The main activity of FEMA is distributing aid to bonhoeffer individuals and state and cook examples, local governments after natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes. In addition, the agency provides ongoing grants to the states for disaster preparedness, and it operates the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). FEMA’s response to some major disasters has been slow, disorganized, and profligate. The agency’s actions have sometimes been harmful, such as when it has blocked the relief efforts of other organizations.
FEMA’s dismal response to Hurricane Katrina in 2005 dramatized the agency’s bureaucratic dysfunction. FEMA’s grants for disaster preparedness are known for wastefulness. As for the NFIP, its insurance subsidies are spurring development in flood-prone areas, which in rudd turn is increasing the code essay damage caused by floods. The NFIP also encourages an rudd essay, expansion of for applied thinking federal regulatory control over local land-use planning. Federalism is bonhoeffer supposed to undergird America’s system of handling disasters, particularly natural disasters. State, local, and private organizations should play the dominant role. Term Of Rizal. Looking at essay American history, many disasters have generated large outpourings of thesis on women empowerment aid by rudd bonhoeffer essay, individuals, businesses, and charitable groups.
Today, however, growing federal intervention is undermining the empowerment role of private institutions and rudd bonhoeffer essay, the states in handling disasters. Policymakers should reverse course and begin cutting FEMA. Ultimately, the agency should be closed down by ending aid programs for empowerment disaster preparedness and relief and privatizing flood insurance. President Jimmy Carter created the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by executive order in bonhoeffer essay 1979 to coordinate the government’s growing involvement in disasters. Among federal agencies, FEMA has the lead role in thesis empowerment helping communities respond to both natural and man-made disasters. However, the great bulk of FEMA spending is for rudd bonhoeffer essay natural disasters, which are the main focus of term of rizal this essay.
Aside from disaster relief, FEMA provides ongoing aid to the states for emergency preparedness, and bonhoeffer, it operates the term paper of rizal National Flood Insurance Program. FEMA employees are generally not first responders. Instead, their main role is providing financial aid to state and rudd bonhoeffer essay, local governments and individuals. FEMA spent $10 billion in on women empowerment fiscal 2014, but annual expenditures fluctuate depending on the occurrence of disasters. 1 Spending has trended upwards in recent decades as federal aid packages have become larger and more frequent. Annual average FEMA spending was $0.7 billion in the 1980s, $2.8 billion in the 1990s, $13 billion in rudd bonhoeffer essay the 2000s, and analysis, $13 billion so far in rudd the 2010s. Since 2000, 61 percent of FEMA spending has been for disaster relief, 20 percent has been for ongoing grants to state and local governments, and 12 percent has gone to term of rizal the NFIP. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. 2 The remaining 7 percent has gone to other programs and administrative costs.
Prior to code essay the mid-20th century, federal involvement in disasters was generally limited to the activities of the U.S. Essay. military, which provided relief after some major disasters. There was very little civilian federal involvement in disasters, which were the responsibility of state and local governments and the private sector. But since the 1950s, federal intervention has grown as numerous laws have expanded the thesis scope of rudd bonhoeffer essay federal authority and as policymakers have increased spending. Nonetheless, the federal role is for a good analysis essay still supposed to be very limited under current law. Under the rudd bonhoeffer essay 1988 Stafford Act, the federal government is supposed to get involved in disasters only if they are of “such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and the affected local governments.” 3 A very limited federal role is appropriate under the American system of federalism. State and local governments and the private sector should fund disaster preparedness and thesis on women, relief for disasters by themselves, unless it is truly beyond their capabilities. And even then, states hit by disasters can rely on rudd, aid from other states. Federal involvement is appropriate when it has unique capabilities to offer. The Coast Guard’s search and for applied thinking, rescue operations are often vital after hurricanes.
And the National Guard under state command can provide a crucial resource after major disasters, both for law enforcement purposes and relief operations. Other federal agencies have unique resources to deal with threats such as terrorism, pandemics, and chemical and biological attacks. However, the bonhoeffer essay great majority of what FEMA does is not unique. Resume. Rather, FEMA’s main role is rudd simply to transfer money from resume federal taxpayers to state and local governments and bonhoeffer, individuals for criteria analysis disaster-related costs. Rudd Essay. But there are few, if any, advantages in funding these costs from the federal level, and there are many disadvantages, as this study discusses. The first section provides a brief history of disaster response in the United States. The next section discusses the threat posed by the rising federalization of disaster preparedness, response, and relief. Federal policymakers are increasingly ignoring the analysis Stafford Act limit, which could undermine the rudd essay effectiveness of the nation’s disaster response system. Then the study examines FEMA’s performance in institute for applied critical disaster response. The agency’s efforts have often been plagued by rudd, poor decisionmaking, wasteful spending, and excessive bureaucracy.
Some of its actions have been counterproductive and critical thinking, harmful. Rudd. FEMA’s confused response to dress code Hurricane Katrina was a prime example of the dysfunction that the agency has become known for. Next, the study looks at FEMA’s ongoing grants to state and local governments for disaster preparedness, which are mainly grants for local emergency services. These grants have often wasted money on low-value activities. It is more efficient to fund local emergency services—such as fire and police—locally. Lastly, the study examines the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP).
For decades, the NFIP has been subsidizing development in rudd flood-prone areas, which has ended up putting more property at risk and exacerbating the damage from floods. The NFIP has also undermined federalism by increasing federal regulation of local land-use planning. The essay concludes that policymakers should end FEMA aid for for applied critical thinking disaster preparedness, response, and relief. They should repeal the rudd bonhoeffer NFIP and move flood insurance to the private sector. Those reforms would reduce FEMA spending by under, more than 90 percent. Remaining activities that may fulfill a unique role—such as flood mapping, planning for the continuity of government, and preparedness for technological and radiological hazards—should be moved to other federal agencies. With these reforms, FEMA should be closed down. Since the 19th century, the federal government through the U.S. military has occasionally provided aid after major disasters. 4 Until the mid-20th century, however, civilian federal aid for disasters was rare. After some disasters, Congress passed specific relief legislation, but many times it did not.
Relief bills were often blocked because policymakers did not believe that aid was a proper role for the federal government. 5 Between 1803 and 1947, Congress passed legislation just 128 times to rudd bonhoeffer either express sympathy for victims of particular disasters or to provide some modest aid. 6. In 1802 Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was destroyed by a fire. Resume. Fortunately, a large number of private donations totaling more than $45,000 poured in from around the country to help rebuild the town. 7 Congress provided aid in the form of temporarily suspending duties owed to essay the federal government by merchants in the town. 8 Duties on Portsmouth trade were an paper of rizal, important source of federal revenues, so the government had an interest in allowing the merchants to get back on their feet. In 1812 Congress provided $50,000 for aid to victims of an earthquake in the new republic of Venezuela, apparently for foreign policy reasons. 9. In 1815 Congress passed the New Madrid Relief Act, which provided aid to essay rural Missourians after a series of earthquakes.
The aid bill led to criteria essay dissention and scandal. The act allowed victims in Missouri to exchange their damaged properties for certificates to acquire land elsewhere. But outside speculators descended on the area to rudd bonhoeffer buy land at bargain prices from owners who had not yet heard about the federal relief. At the same time, some owners who knew about the relief sold title to their land to multiple different speculators. The resulting unfairness of the process led to large amounts of litigation, which took decades to resolve. 10. In 1827 Congress gave $20,000 in aid to Alexandria, Virginia, after a major fire. Even though the town was part of the District of Columbia at the time, many members of resume cook examples Congress questioned the bonhoeffer constitutionality of providing public money to for applied critical aid private individuals. 11.
In 1835 the Great Fire of rudd bonhoeffer essay Manhattan razed 674 buildings over 50 acres in New York City. Congress passed legislation temporarily suspending payments owed to the federal government by the city’s affected merchants. Dress. 12. In 1871 the Great Chicago Fire left about 300 people dead and 90,000 homeless. The U.S.
Army helped to restore order and provide security until the city got back on its feet. 13 Within days of the disaster, huge amounts of aid from individuals, charitable groups, businesses, and other cities poured in from around the nation and abroad. 14 Chicago rebuilt very quickly. The private organization Chicago Relief and rudd essay, Aid Society played the dominant role in coordinating the for a analysis huge relief efforts. 15 The effective efforts of the Society were based on the organization’s deep roots in bonhoeffer the local community and its skilled leadership by examples, experienced business people. In 1878 Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act, which has had important implications for rudd the federal role in disasters. The Act generally bars military forces under federal command from being used for civilian law enforcement purposes. Criteria. 16 Under current law, federal military personnel may be used for disaster relief operations at the request of a state, but not for law enforcement. 17 By contrast, National Guard units under the command of state governors are available to aid in law enforcement in bonhoeffer essay disaster situations, as they were after Hurricane Katrina when the New Orleans police force collapsed.
In 1887 President Grover Cleveland famously vetoed a bill that would have provided $10,000 in aid to drought-stricken Texas farmers because of criteria good analysis his concerns about rudd, constitutional federalism. In his veto message, Cleveland said, I can find no warrant for such an on women empowerment, appropriation in the Constitution; and I do not believe that the power and duty of the General Government ought to be extended to the relief of bonhoeffer individual suffering which is in resume cook no manner properly related to the public service or benefit. Rudd Bonhoeffer. A prevalent tendency to disregard the limited mission of this power and duty should, I think, be steadily resisted, to the end that the term paper lesson should be constantly enforced that, though the people support the Government, the Government should not support the people.” 18. In 1906 San Francisco was struck by a massive earthquake and fire that destroyed 80 percent of the city and rudd bonhoeffer, killed about 3,000 people. 19 At least 225,000 people out of o term paper under about 400,000 in the city were left homeless, and 28,000 buildings were wrecked. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. 20.
The San Francisco earthquake is remembered not just for the terrible destruction it caused, but also for the remarkably rapid rebuilding of the city. More than 200,000 residents initially left the city, but the population recovered to pre-quake levels within just three years, and residents quickly rebuilt about 20,000 buildings. 21. The private sector response to the disaster was extremely impressive. Voluntary aid poured in from around the country. John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, and W.W. Astor, for example, each donated $100,000.
22 Charitable groups, including the Salvation Army and institute critical, the Red Cross, played a large role in bonhoeffer essay relief efforts. The health care and home-products company Johnson and Johnson quickly loaded rail cars full of donated medical supplies and sent them to San Francisco. 23. The insurance industry was crucial to the rebuilding. About 90 percent of San Francisco residents had fire insurance from more than 100 different companies. 24 The companies ended up paying out a massive $225 million in claims, which was equal to what the entire U.S. insurance industry had earned in profits in the prior four decades.
25 Insurance payouts totaled about 90 percent of o term paper what was owed, as only a relatively small number of essay companies failed. 26. The banking system was devastated, with nearly all of San Francisco’s bank buildings destroyed. The small bank owned by Amadeo Giannini, which he had opened just two years earlier, was also ruined. Dress Essay. But Giannini was able to rescue his gold and securities, and the next day he opened for business on a wharf on San Francisco Bay. His rapid response and willingness to essay provide loans to all types of resume people after the disaster helped him gain the respect of the city.
His bank would eventually grow to be the essay second-largest in the nation, the Bank of America. Another impressive story is that of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which immediately swung into action and provided free evacuation for more than 200,000 city residents to cook examples anywhere in the country. 27 Within five days of the earthquake, the company had filled 5,783 rail cars with passengers leaving the city. 28 Southern Pacific president Edward Harriman made disaster response the rudd bonhoeffer highest priority of institute for applied thinking his rail network. 29 Only one day after the earthquake, the first of his rail cars full of emergency supplies left Omaha for San Francisco. 30 Harriman personally donated $200,000 to relief efforts.
31. What about the essay government response to the San Francisco conflagration? The city had unfortunately suffered for thesis years from a corrupt local government. Rudd Essay. The good news was that in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, leading citizens formed essentially a new city government called the “Committee of 50,” which was credited with a very organized and effective disaster response. 32 For its part, Congress appropriated just $2.5 million for relief to San Francisco, or about $50 million in today’s dollars. 33. The main federal organization that responded was the U.S. Army, which moved quickly to thesis take control of the city and bonhoeffer essay, provide water, food, tents, and term of rizal, other relief items. Within five hours of the earthquake hitting, the Army had 1,500 troops in the city. 34 Some of the actions of the Army were controversial, but the swift response by essay, the commander of the nearby Presidio base is an example of how local resources and local decisionmaking are crucial in the aftermath of disasters. 35.
In 1913 the Great Easter Flood ravaged a huge area in one of the essay most widespread and damaging disasters to ever strike the United States. 36 High winds and massive flooding caused destruction and rudd bonhoeffer, more than 1,000 deaths across 14 states from Vermont to Alabama. The U.S. On Women. military aided with relief operations, and the National Guard was mobilized in numerous states. Americans responded with huge contributions to the Red Cross and other charitable organizations aiding victims. 37. Ohio was the hardest hit state, and Dayton probably the hardest hit city.
It was built on a flood plain, so when the rudd bonhoeffer city’s levee system collapsed it resulted in disastrous flooding. Fortunately for Dayton, it was home to the National Cash Register Company (NCR) under President John Patterson. Seeing the flood disaster that was about to happen, Patterson seized the initiative and NCR become the central funder and organizer of relief in the city. NCR built 300 boats to rescue flood victims, organized search teams, and provided meals and shelter for thousands of people. On its peak day, NCR’s kitchens provided meals for 83,000 flood victims. Institute For Applied Critical Thinking. 38 NCR headquarters also became the base of operations for essay the Red Cross and Ohio National Guard. 39. John Patterson was an interesting leader.
He instituted innovative and enlightened management practices, such as providing a wide range of recreation and medical amenities for workers. Thesis. But he was also an aggressive businessman, and he and other NCR executives were found guilty of violating federal antitrust laws just weeks before the flood, although this was reversed on appeal. Bonhoeffer Essay. 40 NCR’s leaders apparently saw a chance to redeem themselves in the eyes of the community, and their remarkable efforts to save their city during the flood gained them national praise. Historian Trudy Bell writes in detail about the 1913 disaster. Analysis Essay. 41 One of her interesting findings is bonhoeffer essay that there were widespread refusals of aid by affected individuals and communities, apparently because of cultural norms at the time regarding personal pride and the belief in standing on one’s own feet. 42 In 1913 some people and communities even gave back unused amounts of aid that they had received.
These days, sadly, the thesis situation is the reverse: there is a large amount of fraud in rudd relief programs in the wake of disasters. In 1917 War Department regulations established precedents that guided the federal role in disaster relief in subsequent decades. Institute For Applied. 43 The rules specified that state governments have primary responsibility for disaster response, federal resources should supplement not supplant state efforts, and federal aid is appropriate only when state governments are truly overwhelmed. In 1927 one of the most damaging floods in bonhoeffer essay U.S. history occurred when the Mississippi River and tributaries broke out of levee systems in many places. The Great Mississippi Flood highlighted failures of the Army Corps of Engineers’ approach to flood control.
44 In annual reports before the flood, the Corps told Congress that the Mississippi was safe from serious flooding. 45. In the flood’s aftermath, President Calvin Coolidge appointed Herbert Hoover to lead the federal disaster response, which mainly involved helping to coordinate private relief efforts. 46 Those private efforts included the Red Cross’s huge achievement in titles o term paper under psychology providing hundreds of thousands of people food and shelter in essay temporary camps. 47 Hoover made appeals to the public for donations and was impressed by empowerment, the generosity of so many people: “No other Main Street in the world could have done what the American Main Street did in the Mississippi flood… . The safety of the rudd bonhoeffer United States is its multitudinous mass leadership.” 48. Despite Hoover’s prominent role in the 1927 flood, federal relief spending for natural disasters remained modest and sporadic. It was the Disaster Relief Act of on women empowerment 1950 that started to change that by creating a permanent, civilian structure for federal disaster relief. The Act authorized only a small amount of funding, but it gave the president continuing authority to respond to hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, floods, and other events with various types of aid. 49. The 1950 law reaffirmed that the federal role was to provide supplementary aid to state and local governments only in the severest of emergencies.
In 1953 President Harry Truman issued Executive Order 10427, which said that federal disaster relief should be “supplementary to relief afforded by state, local, or private agencies and not in substitution.” 50. In the decades after the 1950 law, Congress expanded the scope of federal aid in more than a dozen laws. As an example, federal aid was initially only provided to essay local governments, and generally not individuals. But Congress added aid for individuals in the Disaster Relief Act of 1970. Term. 51. In 1968 the essay National Flood Insurance Act offered federal insurance to properties at risk for flooding. A key justification by supporters of federal flood insurance was that it would alleviate the need to pass special aid legislation after each flood disaster. As it has turned out, however, taxpayers are now both subsidizing flood insurance and paying for term paper special relief bills passed after floods.
The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 created the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration within the Department of bonhoeffer essay Housing and Urban Development. This administration was the main forerunner of FEMA. The 1974 Act also created the current system of for applied critical thinking presidential “emergency” and “major disaster” declarations for bonhoeffer adverse events. The main purpose of the declarations is to authorize a flow of federal dollars to for a essay aid state and local governments and individuals. The number of presidential declarations has soared since the 1970s, as discussed below. In 1979 President Jimmy Carter issued Executive Orders 12127 and 12148 to create and structure the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Carter was prompted to create the new agency after the confused and ineffective federal responses to Hurricane Agnes in 1972 and the Three Mile Island incident of 1979. 52 His administration patched FEMA together from existing agencies located in bonhoeffer essay various departments.
FEMA’s main responsibilities are to hand out aid and to coordinate the federal response to dress major disasters that overwhelm state and local governments. In 1988 the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act updated the framework for presidential disaster declarations and the coordination of rudd essay FEMA’s response. 53 The governor of essay a state may request the president to essay declare an “emergency” or a “major disaster” if an event “is of such severity and magnitude that effective response is beyond the capabilities of the state and for applied thinking, the affected local governments and that federal assistance is necessary.” 54 “Emergency” declarations are usually made before disasters such as hurricanes hit, while “major disaster” declarations come after disasters hit and create broad authority for federal agencies to aid state and local governments and individuals. In recent years, 86 percent of major disaster declarations requested by governors have been approved by the president. 55.
Aid authorized under the rudd bonhoeffer essay Stafford Act is disbursed from thesis empowerment FEMA’s Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). DRF spending fluctuates from year to rudd bonhoeffer essay year depending on term paper, events, but since 2000 has averaged $8.3 billion annually. 56 Spending peaked at $24 billion in 2006 after Hurricane Katrina. In recent years, 50 percent of DRF spending has gone to state and local governments for damaged public facilities and debris removal, 29 percent was spent on individual aid, and rudd bonhoeffer, the rest was spent on administration and other costs. Thesis. 57 For public facilities and rudd essay, debris removal, the federal government generally pays 75 percent of the costs and state and local governments pay the term of rizal other 25 percent. Bonhoeffer Essay. But the president can increase the federal share of these costs, and he has done so about thesis on women empowerment, three-quarters of the time that governors have asked him to.
58. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) finds that the share of DRF funding spent on administration doubled between 1989 and 2011 from 9 percent to 18 percent. 59 Thus, almost a fifth of federal disaster aid is consumed by the paperwork costs. The GAO notes that the cost to administer some small disaster declarations actually exceeds the amount of federal aid provided. 60. On paper, the Stafford Act reaffirms principles of federalism in disaster response, but in practice it has spurred increased federal intervention in essay smaller-scale disasters.
Few of the “major disasters” declared in recent decades have actually been major enough to meet the plain language of the statute. 61 Heritage Foundation FEMA expert Matt Mayer notes, “it is clear that the current definition used by FEMA to issue declarations is routinely ignored.” 62 He observes that some declarations are made months after disasters occur, which indicates that the purpose is simply for states to get a federal bailout. In 2002 President George W. Bush signed into institute, law the Homeland Security Act creating the massive Department of essay Homeland Security (DHS), which merged 22 existing federal agencies including FEMA. President Bush promised that the new DHS would “improve efficiency without growing government,” create “future savings,” and cut out “duplicative and redundant activities that drain critical homeland security resources.” 63. It has not turned out that way. DHS’s budget tripled from on women $18 billion in 2002 to $57 billion by 2013. 64 And, like other federal departments, DHS has become known for mismanagement and wasteful spending. Rudd. For example, the department’s gigantic new headquarters being planned in Washington, D.C., is over-budget by term of rizal, $1.5 billion. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. 65. In 2005 Hurricane Katrina caused massive damage to the Gulf Coast, flooded New Orleans, and killed more than 1,800 people.
The storm damage was greatly exacerbated by the failures of FEMA, Congress, the Army Corps of Engineers, and state and local governments. 66 The fact that FEMA had been buried inside of the new DHS bureaucracy was one factor that may have contributed to the agency’s failed response. Institute Critical Thinking. Congress appropriated more than $100 billion for FEMA and rudd essay, other federal agencies for the Katrina response and rebuilding, much of which was spent years after the disaster. 67. FEMA appears to have done a better job in responding to Hurricane Sandy in 2012, although there was still plenty of criteria criticism. Essay. 68 With a presidential election only a week away, the Obama administration seemed determined not to be tarred with failure, as was the thesis on women empowerment Bush administration with Katrina. The storm caused an rudd bonhoeffer essay, estimated 159 deaths and tens of billions of dollars in institute for applied thinking damage in New York, New Jersey, and other states. Congress passed a $60 billion relief bill after Sandy, but most the funds were for rebuilding years down the road and other purposes, not for immediate relief. 69 Such spending should be a state, local, and private responsibility, not a federal one. One interesting aspect of the federal Sandy response was that the president pushed aside FEMA as the lead agency for disaster recovery and created a new Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force chaired by bonhoeffer, the secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD). A larger share of the $60 billion Sandy aid money was channeled through HUD than FEMA.
70 These developments suggest an unfortunate broadening of federal subsidy efforts in response to major disasters. Federalization of Disaster Relief. In the U.S. disaster response system, the for applied critical thinking primary government responsibility is supposed to lie with the states. The federal government is only supposed to essay play a supporting role in the largest of disasters. Criteria For A Good Essay. Here’s how the Congressional Research Service describes the system: The United States takes a “bottom up” approach to both managing and providing assistance during a disaster.
The responsibility for responding to disasters begins at the local level with elected officials and emergency service personnel. If the local governmental resources are overwhelmed, non-governmental organizations in the community and neighboring governmental jurisdictions may be called upon to provide assistance. If those become exhausted, the state and tribal governments may supplement the local government’s resources, and the governor may make a state disaster declaration. Only after both local and state/tribal government resources have been overwhelmed, and the governor of the state has requested assistance, does the federal government begin to “supplement the efforts and available resources of States, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering. Under this principle, except in the most extraordinary circumstances, the local and state/tribal governments are in essay charge of the disaster response. FEMA, or any other federal agency, is there to aid the disaster response process through the National Response Framework and programs it administers, and to coordinate federal resources in response to state requests—not to be in the lead or take command. 71.
A decentralized approach to disasters makes sense. On Women. Under the U.S. Constitution, the powers delegated to the federal government are “few and defined,” as James Madison observed in Federalist 45, while state powers “will extend to all the objects which, in the ordinary course of affairs, concern the lives, liberties, and properties of the people, and rudd bonhoeffer, the internal order, improvement, and prosperity of the State.” Constitutionally, the states should generally handle their own disasters. From a practical perspective, it is state, local, and private organizations and resources that are on the scene and available to immediately assist in emergencies. State and local governments employ 1.3 million people in police forces and criteria for a good essay, fire departments, and those first responders are spread out across our huge nation. 72 State governors have wideranging responsibilities during disasters, and they typically have access to bonhoeffer essay special powers, such as being able to order evacuations. As for the private sector, the 9/11 Commission report noted that “because 85 percent of our nation’s critical infrastructure is controlled not by governments but by the private sector, private-sector civilians are likely to be the first responders in paper psychology any future catastrophes.” 73. Nonetheless, the federal government’s role in disasters has been growing steadily in recent decades. This is a troubling development. Excessive federal intervention threatens to undermine and crowd out more efficient state, local, and private disaster response efforts.
Also, federal interventions usually come with top-down rules that stifle innovation and reduce the efficiency of state and local government services. What is the cause of rising federal intervention in disasters? Partly it was the response to 9/11, and partly it is the essay result of today’s media environment. News reports often imply that the federal government should come to the rescue in resume cook response to rudd local emergencies. Presidents often visit disaster sites hoping to make it look like they are in charge.
Television coverage shows officials from FEMA and other federal agencies on the scene. However, such images give a misleading impression since state governments are actually in charge of disaster situations, and local and private organizations carry out the bulk of response and institute, relief. Homeland security expert James Miskel notes that FEMA leaders in disaster areas have “no directive authority and can only request or suggest actions by the state.” 74. The bipartisan House report on Katrina in 2006 noted that “many Americans—and perhaps even some state and local officials—falsely viewed FEMA as some sort of national fire and rescue team” but “FEMA is essay not a first responder agency.” 75 Instead, for most disasters, the purpose of term paper federal intervention is simply to pay for state, local, and private costs with federal taxpayer dollars. The only rudd, federal role for the “vast majority” of declared major disasters is financial.
76. In his book, Disaster Response and Homeland Security , James Miskel writes: In all but a handful of instances, federal disaster relief amounts to a book-keeping exercise in good which costs are shifted from the state’s ledger to the federal government’s and the federal action consists of little more than writing a check to the affected state and/or local government and rudd bonhoeffer essay, subsequently auditing the psychology expenditure. Thus for the typical disaster, the on-the-ground response action is really confined to two of the three system elements: the private sector and the state/local government agencies. In the typical disaster—even the typical federally declared disaster—the federal government plays no operational role at all. Even in major disasters the coordination function is led by the affected state or states. When a federal coordinator is essay appointed, his or her job is to orchestrate the o term paper under response efforts of federal agencies, not to ‘take over’ the entire response. Bonhoeffer Essay. 77. The large amount of resume cook examples federal disaster aid that is potentially available to the states has created a political dynamic that has pushed up federal costs. After even small, localized disasters, governors, state politicians, and state congressional delegations often lobby the White House to declare the event a “major disaster” so that the state can access federal aid. As a consequence, the number of disaster declarations has soared in rudd recent decades.
The annual average number was 51 in the 1970s, 29 in the 1980s, 74 in the 1990s, 127 in the 2000s, and 139 so far in the 2010s. 78 There has been more than one disaster declaration every three days, on term of rizal, average, in recent years. Politics infuses the rudd bonhoeffer process. Studies find states that are politically important to the president have a better chance of receiving a disaster declaration, and examples, also that states with a member of Congress serving on bonhoeffer essay, the House committee overseeing FEMA typically receive more funding. 79. Recent presidents have tended to paper of rizal declare the rudd bonhoeffer most major disasters in the year that they were up for paper reelection. That was true for essay Ronald Reagan in 1984, George H. W. Bush in 1992, and Bill Clinton in 1996. George W. Bush declared the most disasters of his first term in his reelection year of 2004. Aside from politics, another cause of increasing federal intervention is that the threshold that FEMA uses to determine whether federal aid is appropriate is “artificially low,” says the GAO. 80 FEMA mainly relies on a per examples, capita damage threshold to determine if federal aid is needed. In 2012 the essay threshold for damage to public facilities was $1.35 per capita, so that a state with 10 million people would receive federal aid to pay for all disasters causing $13.5 million or more in damage.
81. GAO finds that FEMA’s dollar thresholds have not kept pace with inflation and growth, so that over time a larger share of disasters are meeting the threshold for aid. Occasional efforts to titles paper impose stricter limits have been rebuffed by Congress. Rudd Essay. 82 Yet the thresholds for federal intervention are absurdly low. GAO finds that in recent years 60 percent of thesis federally declared disasters had a cost of less than $25 million. 83 Even the smallest state could easily find the essay money to pay for a disaster of that size. What are the problems created by under psychology, rising federal intervention?
As noted, it goes against the grain of constitutional federalism. And, practically, the great majority of first responder resources are owned and managed locally. Matt Mayer notes, “almost all disasters are indeed local, which is why the vast majority of them should be responded to, run by, and funded by state and local governments and bonhoeffer essay, their taxpayers.” 84. Federal intervention impedes disaster response and rebuilding because of all the dress extra paperwork involved. Rudd Bonhoeffer. James Fossett of the Rockefeller Institute of Government notes that FEMA’s program for aiding state and local governments, “requires local governments to obtain advance approval for each project and pay for for applied each project up front before getting federal reimbursement for their costs, which must be exhaustively documented. These lengthy, complex processes inevitably delay the recovery process and make it difficult to spend money in a timely fashion.” 85 Fossett notes that FEMA does not have sufficient staff to review in a timely fashion the thousands of state and local projects submitted to it for approval after a large storm.
86. Another problem with federal intervention is rudd bonhoeffer essay that it creates inequities between the states. Thesis On Women Empowerment. Federal disaster aid means that the costs of essay living in more dangerous places, such as on the Florida seacoast, are partly imposed on the residents of code other states. Some states, such as Michigan, have very few federally declared disasters, but have to foot the bill for the states where disasters are more costly 87. People should balance the essay full costs and benefits of living in different places in an unsubsidized manner. Dress Code. Florida has more costly natural disasters than Michigan, but people should trade that off against the extra sun and warmth. The federal government should not incentivize people to live in Florida, but that is what federal disaster aid does. Perhaps the main problem with federal aid is that it reduces the incentive for state and local governments to prepare for disasters themselves. In his book, Disasters and rudd bonhoeffer, Democracy , Professor Rutherford Platt concludes that it is “good politics for state and o term paper, local governments to rudd bonhoeffer essay neglect their own disaster response capabilities in order to make it easier to qualify for a presidential declaration.” 88.
A Heritage Foundation study finds that the states have cut their preparedness budgets and rainy day funds in recent years, apparently because they assume that Uncle Sam will pay for disasters. 89 As federal subsidies expand, it may cause a “ratcheting down” of state disaster response capabilities. 90 Adding to the problem, FEMA may have a bias toward turning down disaster aid for psychology states that have strong emergency capabilities because such states do not “need” federal aid. 91. Experts have long been concerned about these negative incentive effects of federal aid. A White House study under Richard Nixon warned against federal disaster aid that was “so generous that individuals, businesses, and bonhoeffer essay, communities have little incentive to take initiatives to reduce personal and local hazards.” 92 Vice President Al Gore’s “reinventing government” initiative looked at America’s disaster relief system in the 1990s, and resume examples, concluded that it “encourages state and local elected officials to ask for maximum federal disaster assistance.” 93 The report warned that “the ready availability of federal funds may actually contribute to disaster losses by reducing incentives for hazard mitigation and bonhoeffer, preparedness.” 94 Similarly, House and Senate reports after the resume cook 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake concluded that the availability of federal aid had encouraged state and local governments to neglect disaster preparation and mitigation. 95. In the wake of FEMA’s failures during Hurricane Katrina, Florida governor Jeb Bush warned against bonhoeffer, proposals that would strengthen federal powers at the expense of the resume examples states. He said, “As the governor of a state that has been hit by rudd bonhoeffer, seven hurricanes and two tropical storms in thesis on women the past 13 months, I can say with certainty that federalizing emergency response to catastrophic events would be a disaster as bad as Hurricane Katrina.” 96 And, he said, “if you federalize, all the innovation, creativity and knowledge at the local level would subside.” 97. The upshot is that increased federal intervention would backfire. As Matt Mayer says, the essay “states should not be rewarded for term paper of rizal being underprepared,” which they are under the rudd essay current system.
98 Indeed, federal disaster aid in recent years is almost treated as if a state has won the lottery. After Hurricane Sandy, politicians in the affected states announced grand ideas about how they wanted to spend the tens of billions of dollars of federal relief money. A Bloomberg headline captured the empowerment essence: “Sandy Seen as Stimulus, Thanks to rudd bonhoeffer Rebuilding.” 99. A federal response is, of course, crucial for terrorism and criteria good analysis, other threats where federal agencies have unique capabilities that states do not have. Bonhoeffer. Federal agencies, for example, have specialized resources to handle chemical and thesis, biological attacks, pandemics, and nuclear threats.
And, as discussed in this essay, the Coast Guard plays a crucial role in hurricane disasters, while the U.S. military is sometimes called into service for relief in rudd bonhoeffer essay truly major disasters. Of Rizal. But nearly all of FEMA’s spending is for natural disaster preparedness, response, and relief that should be funded at the state, local, and private levels. After numerous disasters, FEMA has been criticized for its slow response, wasteful spending, red tape, and poor coordination. FEMA’s response to Hurricane Katrina exemplified those problems, but it was only one “in a series of major hurricanes in rudd bonhoeffer essay which the overall system performed poorly,” according to paper of rizal security expert James Miskel. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. 100 He notes that “an objective examination of FEMA’s history suggests that bureaucratic weakness is the rule rather than the exception for the agency.” 101. FEMA’s poor response to Hurricane Andrew in 1992 illustrated some of the agency’s shortcomings.
Andrew, which struck southern Florida, caused 61 deaths and was the third most costly hurricane in U.S. history, after Katrina and Sandy. 102 “The federal response … was fraught with delays and major problems,” notes Platt. 103 It took a long time for paper psychology FEMA to get a detailed assessment of essay damage and to determine the needs of the victims. 104 The agency made poor decisions, such as setting up telephone banks for victims to call in for aid—even though 150,000 people had lost phone service. 105. Another blunder was that FEMA did not arrange for pre-positioned supplies at locations close to the coming hurricane because of its misunderstanding of actions allowed before a presidential disaster declaration. 106 In the days leading up to Andrew’s landfall, the Department of Defense readied supplies to be shipped to South Florida, but because of FEMA’s flawed understanding of proper procedures, it did not authorize the shipments. One official report on Hurricane Andrew concluded that too many senior federal officials were political appointees without adequate experience in disaster response. 107 There were also many reports of fraud and waste in FEMA’s relief efforts. Overseeing a hearing on Andrew in 1992, Sen.
Barbara Mikulski (D-MD) said, “I am outraged by the federal government’s pathetically sluggish response and ill-planned response to the devastating disaster wrought by Hurricane Andrew … Time and again the federal government has failed to respond quickly and effectively to major disasters.” 108. Meanwhile, the criteria for a good analysis U.S. Rudd. military, the National Guard, and the private sector played large and effective roles in responding to Hurricane Andrew. 109 The military provided supplies such as meals and medical care. National Guardsmen under state command aided local law enforcement. 110 And the private sector response was exemplified by the impressive efforts of titles o term paper under psychology electric utilities to restore power. Hundreds of crews of utility workers from rudd across Florida and numerous other states worked tirelessly to fix the huge number of outages. 111. FEMA’s shortcomings, which were apparent during Andrew, were magnified during the agency’s dismal response to critical Hurricane Katrina. Katrina resulted in bonhoeffer the flooding of New Orleans, massive destruction along the thesis empowerment Gulf Coast, $100 billion in rudd essay property damage, and paper, about 1,800 deaths. Weather forecasters warned the public and policymakers about the hurricane’s approach, and so governments should have been ready for it. But they were not, and Katrina exposed major failures in essay disaster preparedness and response by resume cook examples, FEMA and other federal, state, and bonhoeffer essay, local agencies.
Here are a few of the federal failures in dress code the Katrina response: Confusion . Key officials in FEMA and DHS were not proactive, they gave faulty information to the public, and they were not adequately trained to carry out their roles. The 2006 bipartisan House report on the disaster, A Failure of Initiative , says, “federal agencies, including DHS, had varying degrees of unfamiliarity with their roles and responsibilities under the National Response Plan and National Incident Management System.” 112 The report says there was “general confusion over bonhoeffer essay, mission assignments, deployments, and command structure.” 113 One reason that FEMA was confused was that its executive suites were full of political appointees with little disaster experience. Titles Psychology. 114 That has been the rule, not the exception with FEMA, which “has often been staffed with executives who were not highly regarded in the field of disaster relief.” 115 Failure to Learn . The government was unprepared for Katrina even though it was widely known that such a hurricane was probable, and rudd bonhoeffer essay, weather forecasters had been accurate in resume predicting the advance of Katrina before landfall. 116 A year prior to Katrina, government agencies had performed a simulation exercise—“Hurricane Pam”—for a hurricane of similar strength hitting New Orleans, but governments “failed to learn important lessons” from the essay exercise. Good Essay. 117 Communications Breakdown . The House report found that there was “a complete breakdown in communications that paralyzed command and control and made situational awareness murky at best.” 118 Agencies could not communicate with each other due to rudd bonhoeffer essay equipment failures and a lack of resume examples system interoperability. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. 119 These problems occurred despite the fact that FEMA and predecessor agencies have been giving grants to state and local governments for institute critical emergency communication systems since the beginning of the Cold War.
120 Supply Failures . Bonhoeffer Essay. Some emergency supplies were prepositioned before the storm, but there was nowhere near enough. Thesis Empowerment. 121 In places that desperately needed help, such as the rudd bonhoeffer New Orleans Superdome, it took days to deliver medical supplies. Good Essay. 122 And FEMA wasted huge amounts of supplies. It delivered millions of rudd bonhoeffer pounds of ice to holding centers in cities far away from the Gulf Coast. Titles O Term Under Psychology. FEMA sent truckers carrying ice on wild goose chases across the country. 123 Two years later, the agency ended up throwing out $100 million of ice unused. Rudd. 124 FEMA similarly gave away $85 million worth of essay household goods purchased for victims that sat unused in rudd bonhoeffer essay warehouses for two years.
125 The agency paid for criteria for a analysis essay 25,000 mobile homes costing $900 million, but these went almost totally unused due to FEMA’s own regulations that such homes cannot be used on flood plains, which is where most Katrina victims lived. 126 Indecision . Indecision plagued government leaders in numerous areas, such as the deployment of essay supplies, medical personnel, and other items. 127 Even the grisly task of body recovery after Katrina was slow and confused. Bodies went uncollected for days “as state and federal officials remained indecisive on a body recovery plan.” 128 FEMA waited for Louisiana to make decisions about bodies, but the governor of Louisiana blamed FEMA’s tardiness in code essay making a deal with a contractor. Similar problems of too many bureaucratic cooks in the kitchen hampered decisionmaking in areas such as organizing evacuations and providing law enforcement resources to Louisiana. And before the storm, too many agencies were responsible for New Orleans’ levees, so nobody took responsibility for rudd the deficiencies. Dress Code. Fraud and Abuse . Free-flowing Katrina aid unleased a torrent of fraud and abuse. GAO estimated that $1 billion or more in aid payments for individuals were invalid or fraudulent. 129 Other estimates put the total waste at up to $2 billion.
130 An Associated Press analysis found that “people claiming to live in as many as 162,750 homes that did not exist before the storms may have improperly received as much as $1 billion in tax money.” 131 A New York Times investigation concluded: “Among the many superlatives associated with Hurricane Katrina can now be added this one: it produced one of the most extraordinary displays of rudd bonhoeffer essay scams, schemes and stupefying bureaucratic bungles in modern history, costing taxpayers up to dress essay $2 billion.” 132. Perhaps the rudd essay most appalling aspect of the federal response was that FEMA frequently obstructed the relief efforts of other organizations. Here are some examples: FEMA repeatedly blocked the delivery of emergency supplies ordered by paper of rizal, the Methodist Hospital in New Orleans from its out-of-state headquarters. 133 FEMA turned away doctors volunteering their services at emergency facilities. Methodist’s sister hospital, Chalmette, for example, sent doctors to the emergency facility set up at New Orleans Airport to rudd bonhoeffer essay offer their services, but were turned away because their names were not in a government database. 134 Private medical air transport companies played an important role in on women empowerment evacuations after Katrina. But FEMA officials provided no help in coordinating these services, and they actively blocked some of the bonhoeffer flights.
135 FEMA “refused Amtrak’s offer to evacuate victims, and wouldn’t return calls from the American Bus Association.” 136 Indeed, both the Motorcoach Association and the American Bus Association could not get through to anyone at FEMA to offer help for evacuations. Resume. 137 The Red Cross was denied access to essay the Superdome in New Orleans to paper of rizal deliver emergency supplies. 138 FEMA turned away trucks from Walmart loaded with water for New Orleans, and it prevented the rudd Coast Guard from delivering diesel fuel. 139 Offers of emergency supplies, vehicles, and dress, specialized equipment from other nations were caught in federal red tape and shipments were delayed. 140. A New York Times article during the rudd disaster said there was “uncertainty over who was in charge” and “incomprehensible red tape.” 141 A key problem that Katrina made clear is that the institute thinking government’s emergency response system has become far too complex. The system “fractionates responsibilities” across multiple layers of rudd bonhoeffer governments and multiple agencies. 142 There are 29 different federal agencies that have a role in term disaster relief under the National Response Framework. 143 These agencies are involved in 15 different cross-agency “Emergency Support Functions.” There is also a National Incident Management System, a National Disaster Recovery Framework, and numerous other “national” structures that are supposed to coordinate action. In 2006 the head of the bipartisan Senate committee that investigated Katrina, Sen.Susan Collins (R-ME), concluded that FEMA was a “shambles and bonhoeffer, beyond repair.” 144 But her committee proposed replacing it with a larger and criteria for a essay, more powerful agency, which is exactly the wrong way to go.
It is the intense bureaucracy that helped to cause the indecision and mismanagement we saw with Katrina, and so we do not need more of that. Disaster expert Rutherford Platt noted in bonhoeffer essay his 1999 book that “during the past 50 years, Congress has created a legal edifice of byzantine complexity to cope with natural disasters.” 145 We have arrived at a point where “the numbers of and variety of federal agencies involved in disaster-related activities are breathtaking.” 146 The complexity has become worse over the past 15 years. Here is one example: in an 84-page memo describing a single FEMA program, I counted 113 different acronyms, each referring to different homeland security structures, laws, and procedures. 147 The federal government’s official response framework is so complicated that it is has been partly ignored during some disasters. On Women. 148. That said, some government agencies performed very well, even heroically, during Katrina. The Coast Guard’s performance, for example, was widely lauded. It rapidly deployed 4,000 service members, 37 aircraft, and bonhoeffer essay, 78 boats to the area. 149 The agency rescued more than 30,000 people in institute critical the days following the storm. 150.
Why did the Coast Guard succeed? Unlike FEMA, it has decentralized operations and essay, relies much more on local decisionmaking. Coast Guard employees live in local communities and are familiar with local leaders and resume cook, institutions, so they were able to make decisions rapidly during Katrina based on the best information. 151 One expert writing about the Coast Guard’s culture says, “the Coast Guard has always emphasized decentralization with much decisionmaking authority vested in rudd bonhoeffer the commander on term paper of rizal, the scene.” 152. Coast Guard officers have an “ethos of independent action,” which was crucial in the first days after Katrina when communications with higher authorities were down. 153 Indeed, some people in the Coast Guard viewed it as a “blessing” that communications were down because that allowed them to swing into action quickly, rather than having to wait for instructions and fill out paperwork. Rudd Essay. 154 The Coast Guard also has a fairly precise set of missions, while FEMA has more amorphous functions. Thesis On Women. A final factor is that the Coast Guard is more insulated from politics than is FEMA.
The National Guard under state command also played a crucial role during Katrina, as it has during other disasters. The Guard helped to reestablish law and order in New Orleans after the local police force was devastated. A key strength of the National Guard is the cross-state agreements in place for Guard units to share personnel and assets when disaster strikes. The 50,000 National Guardsmen providing relief after Katrina were from rudd 49 states of the thesis on women union. They “participated in every aspect of emergency response, from bonhoeffer medical care to law enforcement and debris removal, and were considered invaluable by Louisiana and Mississippi officials.” 155. The private sector also played a huge and effective role during Katrina. Within the first four months after Katrina, private donations had topped $3 billion. 156 The Red Cross, which swelled to a 220,000-person operation, had 239 shelters ready to house 40,000 evacuees on code essay, the day Katrina made landfall.
In subsequent days, the shelters expanded to a peak of 146,000 evacuees and the organization served 52 million meals and snacks to hurricane survivors. 157 The Salvation Army housed a peak of rudd 30,000 evacuees in 225 shelters. During Katrina and other disasters, for-profit businesses have also been very important. Insurance companies send teams to affected areas that accelerate pay-outs to titles under psychology covered homeowners and offer quick loans to help people cover costs while their claims are being processed. 158 Electric utilities rush extra crews to disaster areas. Bonhoeffer. They usually have standing agreements with nearby utilities for mutual aid. Utility companies have a strong financial incentive to return power rapidly, and code, that incentive works in their customers’ favor. Walmart’s rapid, organized, and proactive response bringing life-saving supplies into bonhoeffer essay, damaged areas after Katrina was remarkable and widely lauded. Walmart had a war room in place days ahead of Katrina’s landfall and supplies stationed and ready for for a good the storm’s immediate aftermath.
Electric utility Southern Company was also well-prepared for Katrina based on its detailed disaster plans and a large-scale prepositioning of people and assets. 159. Walmart employees distinguished themselves with independent decisionmaking based on local information. Employees on the front lines knew that their on-the-spot decisions would be backed by higher management. 160 The Washington Post reported that within days, Walmart delivered “an unrivaled $20 million in cash donations, 1,500 truckloads of free merchandise, food for 100,000 meals and rudd essay, the promise of a job for every one of its displaced workers.” 161.
Economist Steven Horowitz studied the performance of FEMA, the Coast Guard, and term paper, Walmart during Katrina. 162 He concluded that a government bureaucracy in rudd bonhoeffer essay Washington, such as FEMA, cannot operate effectively in response to local disasters. It does not have the right incentives, is too risk-averse, and institute, tends not to learn lessons. The bipartisan House report on Katrina noted that the “government failed because it did not learn from past experiences” and because of the rudd “risk-averse culture that pervades big government.” 163. Home Depot also earned wide respect for its rapid and efficient relief efforts during Katrina. Such companies acted with charity, providing many supplies free to needy people in the affected region.
Horowitz notes that businesses also have strong incentives to aid the thesis empowerment public when disasters strike because in the long run they gain respect and loyal customers in the communities that they serve. When Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast in bonhoeffer 2012, it was once again institutions other than FEMA that put in the best performance. The Coast Guard and examples, the National Guard performed admirably, with the latter performing a wide variety of relief and civil order functions. Bonhoeffer Essay. 164 The Red Cross had hundreds of shelters ready for thousands of people on code, the day Sandy hit, and the Salvation Army supplied a huge amount of meals to victims in the days after the storm. 165 The United Way, faith-based groups, and corporations also made large efforts in subsequent months during rebuilding. FEMA appeared to do a better job responding to rudd bonhoeffer Hurricane Sandy than Katrina. Former mayor Rudy Giuliani (R-NY) claimed that FEMA’s response to Sandy was “as bad as Katrina,” but that does not seem to resume cook be the case. 166 However, FEMA is still a troubled agency. A recent study by rudd bonhoeffer essay, the Partnership for Public Service, for example, ranked it one the worst places to work in the federal government. Criteria For A Good. 167. A September 2014 report by the Inspector General (IG) of DHS reviewed FEMA’s new logistics system—a system that Congress required FEMA to build after the many supply failures of rudd bonhoeffer Katrina.
The new FEMA system is expected to on women cost $556 million, up from the original estimate of $325 million, and bonhoeffer, it is far behind schedule. Resume Cook Examples. 168 After DHS spending of $247 million on the system so far, the IG concluded that the system “may not be effective during a catastrophic disaster” and rudd bonhoeffer essay, “may not ever meet critical performance requirements.” 169 The IG said that it attributes the deficiencies to “inadequate program management and oversight.” 170. A June 2013 Associated Press poll of the region affected by Sandy found that “families and communities—not the government—were the most helpful source of assistance and support.” 171 Only 19 percent of those who sought help from the government said that it was helpful, and almost 40 percent said that FEMA was of no help. 172. FEMA spends roughly $2.5 billion a year on a dozen grant programs that provide ongoing funding for state and resume, local first responders. Nine of these programs are “preparedness” grants, which the essay DHS says “strengthen our nation’s ability to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies.” 173.
Most of the preparedness grants were either created or expanded after the September 11, 2001, attacks, and they have distributed almost $40 billion to code essay state and local governments since then. Rudd. 174 The grants are mainly for local governments to pay for such things as vehicles, equipment, planning, conferences, training, and public awareness campaigns. Here is a list of the preparedness grants with the dress essay 2014 spending amounts: 175. Urban Areas Security Initiative (UASI)—$587 million for rudd essay urban preparedness against terrorism. Paper Of Rizal. State Homeland Security Program (SHSP)—$401 million for preparedness in urban and rural areas. Bonhoeffer Essay. Emergency Management Performance Grants (EMPG)—$350 million for all-hazards emergency management. Operation Stonegarden—$55 million to term paper enhance coordination between government agencies for border security. Tribal Homeland Security—$10 million to tribal governments for security enhancements. Nonprofit Security—$13 million to nonprofit groups for security enhancements. Port Security—$100 million for seaport security. Transit Security—$90 million for transit system security.
Intercity Passenger Rail—$10 million for Amtrak security. A fundamental problem with such grants is bonhoeffer essay that federal funding of local activities is paper less efficient than local funding of local activities. Bonhoeffer. In part, that is because federal politicians focus on of rizal, maximizing spending in their states, not on program effectiveness. Essay. In a 2012 report on FEMA grants, Senator Tom Coburn of Oklahoma said that Congress is preoccupied with the amount of money spent, not “how the institute for applied thinking money is spent, or whether it is needed in the first place.” 176. The expansion of the UASI program illustrates the importance of rudd essay politics.
UASI originally provided funds to the 7 U.S. cities with the highest terrorism risks. But cities that did not receive funds—and their members of thesis on women Congress—immediately started lobbying for inclusion, and over bonhoeffer, time Congress added more cities. For Applied Thinking. 177 In due course, Congress expanded the program to rudd bonhoeffer 64 cities, although it has recently been cut back to 37. 178. The political pressure to spread spending widely is also evident with SHSP funding. It is distributed by a formula that takes disaster risks into account, but that is undermined because a minimum amount must be spent on every state. 179 Wyoming, for example, has just one-fifth of one percent of the U.S. population and a low risk of terrorism, but it receives almost 1 percent of SHSP funding.
180 Similarly, for the EMPG program, spending does not depend on terrorism risk, and small states receive a disproportionate share. Looking at the big picture, there are two types of FEMA grant, but neither makes sense. Coburn’s report says that some grants “subsidize expenditures that would otherwise have been made by state and resume cook examples, local governments.” 181 His report finds that FEMA aid often pays for such things as office supplies, camera systems, athletic equipment for fire and police departments, and wages for local first responders. Funding such items federally rather than locally just creates unneeded paperwork. Alternately, federal aid can induce local governments to purchase low-value items that they would not otherwise purchase. FEMA money is “free” to local governments, so they tend to squander it.
Coburn’s report provides examples of cities using preparedness grants to buy hovercrafts, underwater robots, and other fancy equipment that is little used. Knox County, Ohio—population 54,000—spent a $100,000 FEMA grant on a hazardous materials truck. The truck sat unused, and a local official admitted that it had been “a total waste of bonhoeffer taxpayer dollars from the federal government on down.” 182. FEMA’s aid has raised civil liberties concerns. Numerous cities have purchased license plate reader systems and video surveillance systems with FEMA grants, for resume examples example. 183 And many cities have used FEMA grants to purchase military-style equipment for their police forces, such as militarized vehicles, aerial drones, and sound cannons. 184.
The Wall Street Journal noted that “six-figure grants from the Department of Homeland Security have been funding BearCats and other heavily fortified vehicles in rudd bonhoeffer towns and cities nationwide.” 185 A BearCat is an armored personnel carrier. For A Good Essay. Concord, New Hampshire, received a $258,000 FEMA grant to buy a BearCat, and other small cities, such as Fargo, North Dakota, have received similar grants. Essay. 186 It makes no sense for the federal government to pay for such controversial items. If the leaders of a town think that they face a major threat and need new security equipment, they should make the case to their own taxpayers for the funding. Aside from the empowerment grants listed above, FEMA also provides firefighter assistance grants of about $600 million a year.
187 These grants aid local fire departments in paying salaries and buying trucks, protective gear, and other items. Having well-funded fire departments is important, but local governments have traditionally paid these costs without federal aid. Indeed, firefighting is the rudd essay archetypal local service that traces back to at least the Union Fire Company organized by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1736. 188 Cities and institute for applied thinking, towns have long been proud of their local firefighters, who are either paid employees or volunteers. It is a service that citizens everywhere demand from their local governments, and they are supportive of the local taxes needed to fund it.
So there is bonhoeffer no reason for the federal government to intervene in this activity. Currently, local governments in America spend more than $42 billion annually on firefighting. Titles O Term Psychology. 189 FEMA firefighting grants amount to rudd bonhoeffer just 1.5 percent of this total, so it is thesis on women empowerment a small share. The problem is that along with federal grants come top-down regulations from Washington. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. Few people would want federal politicians controlling their local fire departments, but that will be a growing problem if the thinking money keeps flowing. A 2010 news article in rudd essay San Antonio on o term paper under psychology, a FEMA grant illustrates the problem:
The city was poised to spend its own money to build two new fire stations and already had hired a contractor, Bartlett Cocke. Then the Federal Emergency Management Agency awarded the city $7.3 million from the stimulus program in September 2009 to rudd bonhoeffer pay for the stations and speed up response times by firefighters to keep residents safe. Examples. But San Antonio hit a bureaucratic snag at FEMA that could delay the project by rudd, a year. Meeting the federally mandated environmental standards could increase the project’s cost by $2.2 million. And the city decided to o term under rebid the construction contract to make sure it met FEMA’s requirements, which meant Bartlett Cocke was out of a job. In San Antonio, Councilman Reed Williams, whose district includes the site for fire station 51, complained at rudd essay Thursday’s City Council meeting that the stations are getting more expensive. Institute Critical. The council approved a motion to increase the design costs of both stations by nearly $200,000 so the essay structures will be certified under standards set by the U.S. Green Building Council. “This thing’s going to be a year late, and it’s going to criteria for a analysis cost us more money,” Williams said. Essay. Williams asked how much more the stations were going to institute thinking cost in the stimulus program, compared to the original costs when the rudd city planned to build the stations without federal assistance. City staffers didn’t have an on women, answer at the ready, but Walsh said in rudd bonhoeffer essay an interview that federal requirements could add an estimated $2.2 million to the price tag.
190. Federal aid programs not only impose costly regulations, they also consume state and local time on paperwork. You can see some of the firefighter paperwork at www.fema.gov/firegrants. There are three different grants, each with different rules. Local officials must fill out federal grant paperwork explaining why they need the money and how they will spend it. Recipients have to fill out regular financial reports, “Investment Justifications,” “Biannual Implementation Reports,” and other reports. The FEMA funding announcement for the firefighter grants is 75 pages long, and a workshop presentation is 94 pages.
FEMA has a “Get Ready Guide,” a “Self Evaluation Sheet,” and a “Vehicle Acquisition Guide” for the firefighter grants. Even after all the paper under psychology paperwork, there is no guarantee that a local government will receive funding. The key is to have a skilled representative on your side. Here is a 2013 press release from Rep. Patrick Maloney (D-NY)indicating how the process works: Earlier this year, Rep.
Maloney secured an investment for bonhoeffer essay $2,400,000 to hire fifteen new firefighters through the code Assistance to bonhoeffer Firefighters Grant Program— Staffing for Adequate Fire and cook examples, Emergency Response (SAFER). Although their grant application was initially denied, Rep. Maloney worked closely with the rudd essay Newburgh Fire Department and DHS personnel to of rizal ensure the Department received this SAFER award. 191. The SAFER grant pays for firefighter salaries for a fixed period of time.
After the grant money runs out, the essay town of Newburgh will have to find another funding source to keep its 15 new firefighters. So the term of rizal federal aid did not really solve any problem, it simply delayed the town from finding a stable long-term funding source. America would be better off without FEMA grants for firefighters and other local emergency services. Ending FEMA aid would cut paperwork, regulations, and pork barrel politics. Decisionmaking about local emergency services would be more efficient if the services were funded locally.
Americans know that police and rudd bonhoeffer essay, firefighter services are vital to cook examples their communities—and that is exactly why we do not need federal intervention. Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in 1968 to help property owners in flood-prone areas purchase government-backed insurance. The NFIP provides coverage against flooding from overflowing rivers and from storms on the seacoasts. Flooding is “the most frequent and bonhoeffer, costly natural hazard in institute for applied critical thinking the United States. More than 90 percent of all natural disasters in rudd the nation involve flooding.” 192. The NFIP was supposed to save taxpayers money by on women, alleviating the need for Congress to pass emergency aid packages after floods. Taxpayers were also not supposed to essay be burdened by the program itself because insurance premiums were to cover the system’s costs.
Also, the empowerment NFIP included floodplain regulations that are imposed on communities adopting the bonhoeffer essay program. These regulations were supposed to mitigate the harm from thesis on women empowerment floods. None of the promises panned out. Congress continues to pass large disaster aid bills after floods. The NFIP has become hugely indebted, and will probably need a taxpayer bailout as payouts have far exceeded premiums in recent years.
Most importantly, rather than reducing the nation’s flooding problems, the rudd bonhoeffer NFIP has likely made flood damage worse by encouraging more development in hazardous areas. Since 1970, the estimated number of Americans living in coastal areas designated as Special Flood Hazard Areas (SFHAs) by FEMA has increased from 10 million to more than 16 million. 193 Subsidized flood insurance has backfired by helping to on women empowerment draw more people and development into flood zones. Flood insurance is rudd bonhoeffer available to homeowners and businesses in the roughly 20,000 jurisdictions across the for applied critical nation that have decided to participate in the NFIP. 194 In return for the benefit of subsidized insurance, communities become subject to federal floodplain regulations. People who live in SFHAs and have a federally backed mortgage are required to bonhoeffer essay have flood insurance. However, compliance with this mandate is very low. 195. There are currently 5.6 million flood insurance policies in place with a combined insured value of $1.2 trillion.
196 Policies are serviced by on women, private insurance companies, but the rudd essay insurance risks fall on federal taxpayers. 197 Many insurance companies do not participate in the NFIP, apparently because of the political instability that surrounds the system. 198. FEMA has trouble administering the NFIP. The GAO has had the NFIP on its “high-risk” list of institute critical thinking troubled programs for years. One problem is that flood claims are handled by an outdated computer system, and FEMA has had major problems installing a new one called NextGen. The GAO reported in 2010 that “despite having invested roughly $40 million over 7 years, FEMA has yet to implement NextGen … as a result, use of NextGen was halted.” 199. FEMA collects about rudd bonhoeffer essay, $3.5 billion in annual NFIP premiums. 200 When the premiums are insufficient to resume pay claims, FEMA borrows from the U.S. Treasury. In recent years, the rudd essay program has accumulated more than $24 billion in debt because payouts have far exceeded premiums.
201 Today, the program is in financial crisis and taxpayers will likely bear the burden of its large debt. The NFIP’s financial shortcomings are typical of government-run businesses. Code Essay. Unlike private insurance, the NFIP charges artificially low rates, does not build capital surpluses, and bonhoeffer, does not purchase reinsurance to cover catastrophic losses. 202 Furthermore, the NFIP cannot reject applicants in order to manage the resume cook examples system’s risk, and essay, it is under psychology legally constrained in its ability to raise rates. The GAO says that “by design, NFIP is not an bonhoeffer, actuarially sound program.” 203. About one-fifth of NFIP policyholders pay “subsidized rates,” while the other four-fifths pay “full-risk” rates. 204 But even the full-risk rates are below what market rates would be.
A 2011 insurance industry study found that overall NFIP premiums are only half the level needed to cover the system’s full costs, and property owners in high-risk areas pay just one-third of full market rates. 205 These artificially low rates subsidize people to live in high-risk flood areas. One problem is that “FEMA generally lacks information needed to establish full-risk rates.” 206 Rates are based on Flood Insurance Rate Maps, but FEMA’s maps have long been criticized as not being up to criteria analysis essay date. FEMA maps often do not reflect changes in the landscape caused by factors such as ongoing development and rudd bonhoeffer essay, erosion. Criteria Essay. 207. Another problem with the NFIP is that it undermines federalism. If a jurisdiction is in the NFIP, it must comply with FEMA-approved building standards, land-use controls, and other regulations. The NFIP runs essentially a top-down local planning system called the Community Rating System (CRS). Rudd. Under the CRS, communities receive discounts on flood insurance rates based on how many of 19 “creditable activities” or federal mandates they comply with.
208. The Congressional Research Service says that with the NFIP, the federal “government became a de facto regulator of cook examples certain economic activity in flood-prone areas.” 209 However, local governments have been hesitant to enforce the tougher zoning rules and building standards because they are eager to bonhoeffer essay receive the higher tax revenues that stem from new development. The broader policy issue is dress that the NFIP undermines federalism by extending Washington’s regulatory power into what should be local decisionmaking. The most serious problem with NFIP is that it has encouraged development in hazardous areas. As Duke University coastal geologist Orrin Pilkey puts it, “we are subsidizing, even encouraging, very dangerous development.” 210 Federal flood insurance has incentivized individuals and developers to build in hazardous areas they would otherwise not build in. Local governments have an incentive to rudd bonhoeffer approve development in cook examples hazardous areas because they are eager to increase their property tax bases. As more of the U.S. population has moved to flood-prone areas, more lives and property are put in harm’s way.
211 As development expands in seacoast areas it shrinks wetlands. Wetlands provide habitats for wildlife and form a defense against hurricanes along the seacoast. “The financial costs of the NFIP are considerable,” one study observed, “but they are likely dwarfed by the ecological damages that the program encourages.” 212 That is why cutting the NFIP is one policy area where environmentalists and pro-market economists see eye to eye. The NFIP creates “moral hazard,” which is when people take risks that they would not otherwise take because they do not bear the bonhoeffer full costs of failure. Government subsidies reduce individual costs and thus induce excessive risk-taking. For Applied Thinking. The Congressional Research Service noted of the NFIP: “the assurance of federal assistance in the event or repeated disaster-related losses may create a ‘moral hazard’ by rudd, lowering the incentives to take appropriate steps to mitigate loss.” 213. The moral hazard problem is clear when you consider the NFIP’s large payouts to empowerment property owners who have made multiple claims.
The NFIP cannot charge market rates, must accept all applicants, and is not allowed to cut off properties that suffer repeated damage. 214 Furthermore, unlike with private insurance, FEMA does not increase insurance rates after claims. Not surprisingly then, some property owners repeatedly rebuild in essay hazardous locations knowing that the government will bail them out after each flood. Repetitive loss properties account for thesis only about 1 percent of all policies, but are responsible for about one-third of all NFIP claims. 215.
USA Today reviewed FEMA records in 2010 and found thousands of rudd homes that had collected multiple insurance payouts that added up to term much more than what the properties were worth. One Mississippi home valued at $69,900 has flooded 34 times since 1978, and the owner has received $663,000 in NFIP payments over the years. 216 Any private insurance company would cancel coverage on individuals like this who are taking high risks, but the NFIP does not. Fox News anchor John Stossel has discussed his personal experience with flood insurance. 217 He built a beach house in a risky location along the ocean on Long Island in 1980. His architect told him that the government would pay for rudd bonhoeffer a new one if a disaster struck, so he went ahead. Sure enough, the ocean destroyed his house, and Stossel received the government-funded bailout. As Stossel has noted, the NFIP is welfare for the well-to-do. Term. A 2010 study looked at claims data over a 10-year period and concluded that “the benefits of the NFIP appear to accrue largely to wealthy households concentrated in a few highly-exposed states.” 218 One reason is that many properties along U.S. seacoasts are vacation residences for well-heeled individuals. The NFIP is not the bonhoeffer essay only federal program encouraging Americans to live in flood-prone areas.
Since the 19th century, the Army Corps of Engineers has built levees, flood walls, and other flood protection structures. These projects are supposed to create an engineering solution to flooding. But, to resume cook examples an extent, the huge investment in these projects has backfired because they have encouraged more Americans to bonhoeffer essay live in flood-prone areas, believing that they are protected. Thesis On Women. The increase in essay perceived safety created by the Corps’ projects has also created a disincentive for individuals to dress code essay buy flood insurance and thus undermined the bonhoeffer essay development of a private flood insurance market. 219. Rutherford Platt observed that “structural flood control and shore protection projects often induce a false sense of security leading to new investment in criteria essay the area thought to be protected by the project.” 220 The result is rudd that areas ostensibly protected by flood control projects “experienced greater losses when floods exceeded the design capacity of dams, levees, and paper of rizal, sea walls than would have occurred without the projects.” 221. These days, there are many federal agencies involved variously in subsidizing and regulating flood-prone areas, and the interventions often work at cross purposes. 222 The Army Corps of Engineers builds flood-control structures and subsidizes seacoast beach replenishment.
Those activities encourage more seaside development. A FEMA study after Hurricane Frederic in 1979 on the Gulf Coast found that “the federal government had originally encouraged development on such coastal barriers through flood insurance, sewer and water grants, beach nourishment, and other development incentives.” 223. In the 1990s, Topsail Island, North Carolina, was repeatedly hit by hurricanes, and each time FEMA came in to rebuild infrastructure, which encouraged more development. 224 And then there is New Orleans, where for decades massive flood control infrastructure built by the Corps encouraged development in dangerous, low-lying areas around the city. That greatly magnified the damage caused by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. In his book, Platt discusses the bonhoeffer essay tension between some government agencies subsidizing people to live in risky places and o term, other agencies imposing regulations to rudd prevent people living in those places. He looks at Fire Island along the criteria for a good analysis essay coast of Long Island, New York, which is vulnerable to hurricanes. Rudd Bonhoeffer. Local activist groups “have each lobbied intensely to win government benefits for Fire Island while opposing any limits on the freedom of private owners to build or rebuild along the oceanfront.” 225. People want to live on this dangerous island, but they also want subsidized beach nourishment projects, flood insurance, and paper, disaster aid. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. Platt concludes that the for applied critical current patchwork of regulations and subsidies from federal programs has “proved futile in achieving a safe and sensible balance of human presence and nature.” 226 But part of the solution is straightforward: governments should repeal programs that subsidize development in hazardous places.
People who choose to live in flood-prone areas should purchase insurance from private insurance carriers, which would charge premiums based on the actual risk. If companies will not offer flood coverage, that is a market signal that it is not a safe place to rudd essay live. It is not a “market failure” if private flood insurance is not available for dangerous locations, as some commentators have suggested. 227. Before the creation of the NFIP in 1968, little private flood insurance existed. There were marketplace reasons for that, but government interventions also created a hurdle for criteria good private flood insurance.
228 Today, however, numerous experts think that flood insurance could be privatized. Bonhoeffer Essay. For one thing, private insurers today have more sophisticated computer models than in the past, and good analysis essay, much more is essay known about paper, flood risks on a detailed basis throughout the nation. Bonhoeffer. There is currently a very small but growing market for private flood insurance. 229. Federal and state governments can encourage the development of private flood insurance by getting out of the for a essay way. Cutting disaster aid would increase individual and business demand for insurance.
Eliminating federal and rudd, state regulations that interfere with insurance pricing would increase the supply of insurance, as would reforming income taxes, which are biased against insurance companies holding capital to cover large but infrequent losses. Thesis On Women. 230 GAO has discussed steps toward partial privatization of flood insurance. 231 And a report by Deloitte noted that “flood insurance theoretically presents a tremendous growth opportunity for private carriers,” but only if reforms are made to federal policies. 232. Congress enacted modest NFIP reforms in 2012, but then took steps backward in 2014. Under the 2012 Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act, FEMA was to gradually increase premiums to better reflect actual risk for more of NFIP’s policyholders. Rudd Essay. 233 Then in term response to complaints about premium increases from constituents, Congress in 2014 passed changes to cap premium increases and to essay reverse other reforms.
234. Congress should revisit this issue. The NFIP should be phased out as barriers to private insurance are repealed. Rep. Jeb Hensarling (R-TX) calls the NFIP “ineffective, inefficient and indisputably costly to hardworking American taxpayers.” 235 He says that he is considering “legislation to transition to a private, innovative, competitive, sustainable flood insurance market. 236. Rep. Candice Miller (R-MI) has introduced legislation to on women empowerment end the NFIP.
237 She summarizes some of the reasons for bonhoeffer repeal: It is ridiculous that the federal government remains in the flood insurance business. With no end in sight for the NFIP in on women racking up new debt, continuing subsidized rates for those who live in flood prone areas, skyrocketing rates for many who live in areas that never flood and 40 years of history showing clearly that the federal government is a very bad insurance company; it is time to take decisive action to rudd bonhoeffer essay wind down the NFIP instead of thesis offering up more bailouts… . Bonhoeffer. I believe in the 10th Amendment and our nation must stop centralizing power in Washington on dress code essay, a wide variety of issues… . It is time to stop looking to Washington for one size fits all solutions and bonhoeffer, allow states to criteria for a analysis essay provide real and affordable solutions to bonhoeffer essay residents who require flood insurance protection. It is time to remove the code essay federal government from the flood insurance business, end the unfair debt liability being placed upon rudd bonhoeffer, all taxpayers by this unsound federal program, stop the on women practice of rudd bonhoeffer forcing unjustly high rates on those living in areas under little risk of criteria good analysis flooding, stop the bonhoeffer politically motivated subsidizing of people who live in highly flood prone areas and restore power to the states. 238. One of the rules that every doctor learns is “first, do no harm.” That rule should be applied to policymaking on natural disasters.
This essay focuses mainly on floods and hurricanes, which are the nation’s most costly and titles o term psychology, prevalent natural disasters. The number of Americans living in risky locations on floodplains and seacoasts has grown in recent decades, and numerous federal policies have encouraged that trend. 239. Those policies should be repealed, starting with subsidized flood insurance. The NFIP has fallen deep into essay, debt, and the program amounts to welfare for the well-to-do. Of Rizal. Congress created the NFIP in 1968 partly in rudd essay the belief that private sector could not provide flood coverage. Paper. Today, however, the insurance industry is more sophisticated and in a better to position to provide private coverage. Congress should phase out the NFIP in combination with regulatory and bonhoeffer, tax reforms encouraging private participation in analysis the flood insurance market. Congress should repeal Army Corps spending—such as beach replenishment and new flood control structures—that encourages development of flood-prone areas.
240 Army Corps spending is supposed to protect communities, but as we have seen in New Orleans and rudd bonhoeffer, elsewhere, the agency’s projects can encourage development in dress essay dangerous, low-lying areas. 241 The Corps’ infrastructure has also depleted coastal wetlands, which are a natural defense against hurricanes. “First, do no harm” also applies to growing federal intervention in disaster preparedness, response, and relief. That intervention will backfire if it reduces the efforts of state and rudd bonhoeffer essay, local governments and the private sector. If federal efforts continue to expand, “the result will be the displacement of the very things that make the system work most of the time—state, local, and private sector preparedness and dress code essay, initiative.” 242. Unfortunately, the rudd bonhoeffer federal urge to spend has triumphed in recent years.
Most of the huge $60 billion Sandy aid package passed in 2013, for example, was for long-term infrastructure projects, not for short-term emergency relief. 243 There is no reason why state and dress essay, local governments could not issue bonds and build rainy day funds to finance disaster response and rudd bonhoeffer essay, rebuilding. Indeed, an resume, advantage in ending federal aid would be to create a strong incentive for states to prepare in advance for disasters, both by putting resources aside and by pursuing mitigation projects to reduce the harm of rudd bonhoeffer disasters. State and local governments and the private sector are in a much better position to paper of rizal handle most disaster response. Rudd. Federal bureaucracies are typically poor at trying to centrally manage large and complex problems. FEMA is no exception: it is slow, risk averse, subservient to politics, and it does not have the local knowledge needed to thesis on women empowerment effectively handle many disasters. First responders and their assets are mainly owned and managed locally, and so a bottom-up structure makes sense. As noted, FEMA intervention can slow state and local relief and rebuilding after disasters because of all the extra paperwork required on rudd bonhoeffer essay, each project. By reducing the federal role, we would reduce ambiguity in thinking the system.
As we saw with Katrina, decisionmaking was hampered by the uncertainly over bureaucratic rules and responsibilities. Our disaster relief system has become “too complex for its own good.” 244 The federal government has made it that way. When you read FEMA and DHS reports, it is striking the huge number of goals, plans, strategies, frameworks, agencies, systems, directives, offices, and rudd essay, other structures that are supposed to come together during disasters. A better approach than such top-down planning would be to greatly cut the thesis federal role and let state, local, and private institutions perform their specialized functions and coordinate among themselves. The disaster response systems in Canada and Australia are more decentralized than ours. 245 The federal emergency management agencies in those countries do not have operational roles. They do provide disaster aid to lower governments, but the thresholds for bonhoeffer aid are more objective than in the United States. Miskel argues that a similar more decentralized approach in the United States would “give a stronger incentive for states to resume examples take emergency preparedness seriously because that helps reduce costs and to rudd bonhoeffer essay manage their disaster relief expenditures carefully.” 246. One encouraging U.S. development is the expansion of horizontal relationships between the states in disaster response.
All the on women empowerment state governments have joined the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which was created in 1996. 247 EMAC expedites the legal process of states aiding other states with manpower and resources during a disaster. During Hurricane Katrina, for example, Florida provided stockpiled commodities to rudd bonhoeffer essay Mississippi under EMAC procedures. 248. Over the past two decades, there has also been an cook examples, expansion in mutual aid agreements between local governments to share police and fire assets during emergencies. 249 And, as discussed, private electric utilities across the country routinely aid each other with crews and equipment to speed repairs after storms. Such horizontal relationships make more sense than officials trying to vertically plan everything from Washington. Miskel argues, “the very last thing that the federal government should do is crowd initiative at nonfederal levels out of the system in the name of improving the federal response to catastrophic disasters.” 250. There are other ideas to rudd help improve state disaster response. One is to reform Good Samaritan laws to ensure that emergency workers do not stay away from disasters in other states for institute critical thinking fear of civil liability.
251 Another is to expand State Defense Forces (SDFs). 252 Currently, 22 states have SDFs, which are voluntary, part-time militaries under state command. Bonhoeffer Essay. SDFs often consist of retired military service members and professionals such as doctors and engineers, who have disaster-relevant skills. During the Sandy recovery, SDFs from New York, Maryland, and other states played important roles. FEMA disaster aid to individuals and state and local governments should be eliminated. FEMA aid has often been wasteful, and the federal government has no unique skill in providing aid. Ending federal aid would have the positive effect of increasing the demand for dress private insurance and in stimulating greater state, local, and bonhoeffer, private disaster preparation. Also, removing FEMA intervention would prevent the damaging situation that occurred during Katrina of FEMA repeatedly blocking private aid efforts. Since the 19th century, private donations have poured into critical, American cities hit by disasters.
In recent decades, charitable groups such as the rudd essay Red Cross and Salvation Army have channeled donations to victims. Historically, businesses have also played a large role in relief, such as after the San Francisco Earthquake of 1906 and the Dayton Flood of 1913. Thesis Empowerment. More recently, the efforts of Walmart and other companies after hurricanes show that businesses are ready to use their logistical skills to aid communities when calamities strike. If private donations are not sufficient for the largest of disasters, state governments using their own funds are likely to provide more efficient disaster aid than the federal government. Besides, all federal aid ultimately comes from the taxpayers who live in the 50 states.
So it makes more sense for bonhoeffer the states to raise their own funding and to plan ahead for the financial demands of future emergencies and psychology, disasters. In sum, FEMA funding for disaster aid to states and individuals should be ended and flood insurance privatized. Those activities represent more than 90 percent of rudd bonhoeffer essay FEMA’s current budget. Dress. Some of the remaining activities include flood mapping, continuity of operations, the public alert system, training programs, and bonhoeffer, technological and radiological hazards preparedness. Those activities should be moved to other agencies, and FEMA closed down. Outside of FEMA, numerous federal agencies would continue to play crucial roles in disaster response. Those include the Coast Guard, the active duty military, the agencies that prepare for thesis on women pandemics and other health threats, and the agencies that handle such threats as terrorism, cyber attacks, and biological and chemical agents. The problem with federal disaster activities is a common one: the bonhoeffer essay government tries to do too much, and dress code essay, it ends up doing little well. In government, less is nearly always more. The federal government should be tasked with only those roles for which it can provide added value not provided by state and rudd essay, local governments or the private sector. Dress. But FEMA’s large and essay, growing budget consists mainly of counterproductive and inefficient aid programs that should be eliminated.
1 Budget of the U.S. Government, Fiscal Year 2015, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), Table 4.1. Updated to resume examples the final 2014 figure. 2 Calculated from the Office of Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 3 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, P.L. 93-288. For a discussion, see Francis X. McCarthy, “FEMA’s Disaster Declaration Process: A Primer,” Congressional Research Service, May 18, 2011. 4 James F. Rudd Essay. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008), chap. 3.
5 Henry Hogue and Keith Bea, “Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options,” Congressional Research Service, June 1, 2006, pp. 4–5. 6 Rutherford H. Platt, Disasters and Democracy (Washington: Island Press, 1999), p. On Women Empowerment. 1. Platt is citing research by Peter May. 8 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” November 2010, p. Essay. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf. 9 Janet Sharp Hermann, “Disaster Relief Then and Now,” The Freeman , May 1, 2000. 11 Patrick S. Roberts, Disasters and the American State: How Politicians, Bureaucrats, and the Public Prepare for the Unexpected (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. 24–25. And see Judy G. Russell, “A Matter of Debate,”August 20, 2012, www.legalgeneologist.com. 12 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 3, www.fema.gov/pdf/about/pub1.pdf.
14 Emily C. Sharbek, “The Chicago Fire of for applied critical thinking 1871: A Bottom-Up Approach to Disaster Relief,” Public Choice 160 (2014): 155–80. 16 For a discussion, see Miskel, p. 49. 17 Jennifer K. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. Elsea and R. Chuck Mason, “The Use of Federal Troops for paper Disaster Assistance: Legal Issues,” Congressional Research Service, November 28, 2008. 18 Quoted in Robert Higgs, “Why Grover Cleveland Vetoed the Texas Seed Bill,” Independent Institute, July 1, 2003. 19 Christoph Strupp, “Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” German Historical Institute, (Washington), March 22, 2006, p. Essay. 8. 20 Morgan O’Rourke, “The Big Shake Up: Revisiting the dress Great San Francisco Earthquake,” Risk Management , April 2006. 21 Douglas Coate, “Disaster and Recovery: The Public and bonhoeffer essay, Private Sectors in the Aftermath of the 1906 Earthquake in San Francisco,” Working Paper, Rutgers University, July 2010. 23 Margaret Gurowitz, “The Origins of o term paper psychology Our Disaster Relief: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906,” Kilmer House, Johnson and Johnson, August 20, 2008. 24 O’Rourke. Rudd Bonhoeffer. Generally, the policies covered fire, not earthquakes. 26 Dalit Baranoff, “Fire Insurance in criteria for a good analysis the United States,” EH.net, March 16, 2008.
27 The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco, “The Great 1906 Earthquake and Fire,” www.sfmuseum.org/1906/06.html. 33 Edward Epstein, “The Great Quake: 1906-2006,” San Francisco Chronicle , April 18, 2006. 35 The actions of rudd bonhoeffer essay Gen. Frederick Funston were controversial for numerous reasons. Criteria Essay. First, he acted without checking with his superiors in Washington. Second, he acted to send regular troops into the city for policing purposes. Rudd Essay. Third, his command of the paper under psychology city was very aggressive, and apparently led to the deaths of bonhoeffer essay numerous people. 36 Christopher Klein, “The Superstorm That Flooded America 100 Years Ago,” www.history.com, March 25, 2013. 37 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence,” 2009, http://trudyebell.com/1913flood.php.
Bell is institute for applied thinking a former editor of Scientific American and rudd bonhoeffer, her website is devoted to the 1913 disaster. 38 Trudy E. Thesis On Women. Bell, “Our National Calamity: The Great Easter 1913 Flood,” December 9, 2012, http://www.trudyebell.com/1913flood.php. 42 Trudy E. Bell, “Aid and Ambivalence.” 43 Miskel, pp. Essay. 8, 9, 41,and 45. 44 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers,” Cato Institute, March 2012, www.downsizinggovernment.org/usace. 45 Arthur E. Morgan, Dams and Other Disasters: A Century of the Army Corps of thesis on women Engineers in Civil Works (Boston: Porter Sargent, 1971), p. 233.
46 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. 5. 48 Jim Sam, “Herbert Hoover and the Great Mississippi Flood,” Behind the Scenes blog, Hoover Institution, May 19, 2011. 49 Platt, pp. 12–18. 51 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Publication 1,” p. Rudd Essay. 6. 53 The law’s full title is the on women Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and essay, Emergency Assistance Act of 1988, P.L. 93-288.
See Bruce R. Lindsay and Justin Murray, “Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations,” Congressional Research Service, April 2011 , p. 4. And see Francis X. McCarthy and Jared T. Brown, “Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies,” Congressional Research Service, May 2013. 54 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act of examples 1988, P.L. Rudd. 93-288. For a discussion, see McCarthy. 55 This figure is for cook 2004–2011. See Government Accountability Office (GAO), “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012.
56 Calculated from the Office of rudd bonhoeffer essay Management and Budget’s “Public Budget Database,” www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/Supplemental. 57 These figures are for DRF spending 2004–2011. See GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. Dress Code Essay. 19. 58 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance,”: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and rudd bonhoeffer, Recover on Its Own,” GAO-12-838, September 2012, p. 34. 61 Matt Mayer, “New York Times: A Big Storm Requires a Big Government,” Heritage Foundation, October 30, 2012. 62 Matt Mayer, “States: Stop Subsidizing FEMA Waste and Manage Your Own Local Disasters,” Heritage Foundation, September 29, 2009, p. 7. 63 President George W. Bush, “The Department of Homeland Security,” June 2002, www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/book.pdf, pp. 1, 7, 16. 64 Budget of the U.S.
Government, Fiscal Year 2014, Historical Tables (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2013), Table 4.1. 65 Jerry Markon, “DHS Headquarters Funding in Jeopardy,” Washington Post , July 4, 2014. 66 Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.” And see Thomas Birkland and Sarah Waterman, “Is Federalism the Reason for examples Policy Failure in Hurricane Katrina?” Publius: The Journal of bonhoeffer Federalism 38, no. 4 (2008): 692–714. 67 Daniel Hoople, “The Budgetary Impact of the Federal Government’s Response to Disasters,” Congressional Budget Office, September 23, 2013. 68 FEMA’s Sandy response is discussed in Steven P. Bucci, et al., “After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Learn and Implement the Lessons in Preparedness, Response, and Resilience,” Heritage Foundation, October 24, 2013. 69 Ibid., p. 10.
About $10 billion of the for a good spending was for the NFIP. 70 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery,” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, July 2013. 71 McCarthy and Brown, p. 5. 72 Bureau of the Census, Government Employment and Payroll, www.census.gov/govs/apes. 73 Quoted in Bucci, et al., p. 6. 75 House of Representatives, Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Katrina, “A Failure of Initiative,” February 15, 2006, p. Rudd Essay. 13.
78 FEMA keeps a count at www.fema.gov/disasters/grid/year. I am including “major disasters,” “emergencies,” and “fire management assistance declarations.” 79 Thomas A. On Women. Garrett and Russell S. Sobel, “The Political Economy of FEMA Disaster Payments,” Economic Inquiry 41, no. 3 (July 2003): 496–509. See also Russell S. Sobel and Peter T. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. Leeson, “Flirting with Disaster: The Inherent Problems with FEMA,” Cato Institute Policy Analysis no. 573, July 19, 2006, pp.
8–9. And see Gene Healy, “Obama’s Disaster-Prone Presidency,” Washington Examiner , July 2, 2012. 80 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 22. 83 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and Recover on Its Own,” p. 49. 84 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. 9. 85 James W. Fossett, “A Tale of Two Hurricanes: What Does Katrina Tell Us About Sandy?” Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government, January 2013. 86 James W. Fossett, “Let’s Stop Improvising Disaster Recovery.” . 87 GAO, “Federal Disaster Assistance: Improved Criteria Needed to Assess a Jurisdiction’s Capability to Respond and criteria good analysis, Recover on Its Own,” pp. Rudd. 16, 20. 89 Bucci, et al., p. 3. 90 Matt Mayer, “States,” p. Titles O Term Under. 7.
91 These issues are discussed in McCarthy. 92 Quoted in Miskel, p. Rudd Bonhoeffer. 127. 93 Quoted in Platt, p. 58. 94 Quoted in Platt, p. 89. 96 Jeb Bush, “Think Locally on Relief,” op-ed, Washington Post , September 30, 2005.
97 Quoted in House of Representatives, , p. 322. 98 Matt Mayer, “Five Lessons from Hurricane Sandy,” November 29, 2012, p. 1. 99 Quoted in for a essay ibid., p. 1. 101 Miskel, p. 15. 102 Brad Plumer, “Is Sandy the Second-Most Destructive U.S. Hurricane Ever,” Washington Post , November 5, 2012. 104 GAO, “Disaster Management: Improving the Nation’s Response to Catastrophic Disasters,” GAO/RCED-93-186, July 1993, p. Rudd Essay. 3.
105 Miskel, p. 81. 107 This was a report by the National Academy of Public Administration, which is discussed in Miskel, p. 87. 108 Quoted in examples Miskel, p. Rudd Bonhoeffer. 85. 109 Miskel, pp. 41, 83–85. 112 House of Representatives, p. 1. 114 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and criteria for a essay, Government Affairs, “Hurricane Katrina: A Nation Still Unprepared,” March 1, 2006, chap. 14. 115 Miskel, p. 15.
116 House of Representatives, pp. Rudd. 1, 11. 120 Miskel, p. 136. 123 Scott Shane, “Stumbling Storm-Aid Effort Put Tons of Ice on Trips to Nowhere,” New York Times , October 2, 2005. 124 John Cochran, “85M Pounds of titles o term paper under Ice Growing Down the Drain, abcnews.com, July 15, 2007. And see Rep.
Bennie G. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on rudd essay, Homeland Security, “One Year Later: Katrina’s Waste,” August 28, 2006, p. Resume Cook Examples. 14. 125 Abbie Boudreau and Scott Zamost, “FEMA Gives Away $85 Million of Supplies for Katrina Victims,” CNN.com, June 12, 2008. 126 Rep. Bennie G. Essay. Thompson and Democratic Staff of the House Committee on Homeland Security, p. Examples. 3. 127 House of Representatives, pp.
300–302. 128 House of Representatives, p. 299. 129 GAO, “Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Disaster Relief,” GAO-06-844T, June 114, 2006. And see Brad Heath, “Katrina Fraud Swamps System,” USA Today , July 6, 2007. 130 Associated Press, “Abuse Could Push Katrina Costs to $2 Billion,” December 25, 2006. 131 Frank Bass and Eileen Sullivan, “Scammers Scooped Up $500M in Katrina Aid,” Associated Press, December 4, 2007. 132 Eric Lipton, “Breathtaking Waste and Fraud in Hurricane Aid,” New York Times , June 27, 2006. 133 House of Representatives, p. Bonhoeffer. 286. 136 Sobel and term, Leeson. 137 House Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina, Rep.
Jefferson questioning of Michael Brown, September 27, 2005. 138 Ann Rodgers, “Homeland Security Won’t Let Red Cross Deliver Food,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , September 3, 2005. 139 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game,” New York Times , September 5, 2005. 140 Elizabeth Williamson, “Offers of bonhoeffer essay Aid Immediate, but U.S. Approval Delayed for Days,” Washington Post , September 7, 2005. 141 Scott Shane, “After Failures, Government Officials Play Blame Game.” 142 Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), p. 6.
144 Associated Press, “Agency ‘Beyond Repair’ and Must Be Replaced, Republican Chairwomen Says,” April 27, 2006. 145 Platt, p. 277. 146 Platt, p. 277. 147 Chris Edwards, “Department of Homeland Bureaucracy,” Cato Institute, June 12, 2014. 148 Miskel, p. 83. 150 Gregory J. Thesis. Sanial, “The Response to Hurricane Katrina: A Study of the Coast Guard’s Culture, Organizational Design and Leadership in bonhoeffer Crisis,” masters degree thesis, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of criteria for a analysis Technology, June 2007. 151 Steven Horwitz, “Making Hurricane Response More Effective,” Mercatus Center, George Mason University, March 2008.
152 Sanial, p. 26. 154 Ibid., pp. 71, 70. 155 Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs, p. 10. Rudd. See also James F. Miskel, Disaster Response and Homeland Security (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2008), pp. 40, 96, 97. 156 House of Representatives, p. 343. 157 Ibid., pp.
312, 344. 158 Miskel, p. Institute For Applied. 25. 159 House of Representatives, p. 328. 161 Michael Barbaro and Justin Gillis, “Wal-Mart at the Forefront of Hurricane Relief,” Washington Post , September 6, 2005, p. D1. 163 House of Representatives, pp. xi, 2. 164 Bucci, et al., 166 Quoted in ibid., p. 4. 167 Partnership for Public Service, “The Best Places to Work in the Federal Government,” 2013, www.bestplacestowork.org. 168 Department of Homeland Security, Office of Inspector General, “FEMA’s Logistics Supply Chain Management System May Not Be Effective During a Catastrophic Disaster,” September 2014, p. 5.
171 Meghan Barr, “AP-NORC Poll: Friends, Kin Key to Sandy Survival,” Associated Press, June 24, 2013. 173 Department of bonhoeffer essay Homeland Security, “DHS Announces Grant Allocation for o term psychology Fiscal 2013 Preparedness Grants,” press release, August 23, 2013. 175 Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no. 393, March 10, 2014. Essay. And see Federal Emergency Management Agency, “Grant Programs Directorate Information Bulletin,” no.
394, March 18, 2014. 176 Office of Senator Tom Coburn, “Safety at of rizal Any Price: Assessing the rudd bonhoeffer essay Impact of Homeland Security Spending in U.S. Cities,” December 2012, p. 5. 177 Ibid., pp. 14, 15, 19, 20, 21.
178 Department of thesis on women Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement: Homeland Security Grant Program,” DHS-14-GPD-067-000-01, 2014. 179 Matt A. Rudd. Mayer, Homeland Security and Federalism: Protecting America from term of rizal Outside the Beltway (Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Security International, 2009), p. 64. 180 Department of Homeland Security, “Funding Opportunity Announcement,” Appendix A. 181 Coburn, p. Rudd. 23. 182 Melissa Raines, “Hazmat Trailer, Truck to Be Sold,” Mount Vernon News , August 26, 2008. 183 Coburn, p. 26. 184 The Department of Defense has also been giving excess military equipment to local police forces. See Matt Apuzzo, “Officer Friendly, In a Tank? War Gear Flows to on women empowerment Local Police,” New York Times , June 9, 2014. 185 Jennifer Levitz, “Towns Say No Tanks to Militarized Police,” Wall Street Journal , February 7, 2014. 186 Coburn, pp.
4, 36–41. 187 Budget of the U.S. Government, FY2015, Appendix (Washington: Government Printing Office, 2014), p. 548. Bonhoeffer. For general information, see www.fema.gov/assistance-firefighters-grant. 188 PBS.org, “ Citizen Ben : Firefighter,” 2002, www.pbs.org/benfranklin. 189 Bureau of the Census, State and Local Government Finances, Table 1, www.census.gov/govs/local.
The 2011 total is criteria for a good $42 billion. 190 Sandra Santos, “Red Tape Delays Some Stimulus Projects,” www.mysanantonio.com, June 29, 2010. 191 Office of bonhoeffer Representative Sean Patrick Maloney, “Maloney Joins New Newburgh Firefighters at resume cook examples Live Burn,” press release, December 20, 2013. 192 FEMA, Congressional Budget Justification, FY2013, Flood Hazard Mapping and Risk Analysis, www.fema.gov/fiscal-year-2013-budget. 193 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, “NOAA’s State of the Coast,” 2012, http://stateofthecoast.noaa.gov/pop100yr/welcome.html. 194 GAO, “Flood Insurance: More Information Needed on bonhoeffer essay, Subsidized Properties,” GAO-13-607, July 2013, p. O Term Paper. 4. 195 Rawle O. Rudd Bonhoeffer Essay. King, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress,” Congressional Research Service, February 6, 2013, p. 3. 197 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Opportunities Exist to Improve Oversight of the institute critical WYO Program,” GA0-09-455, August 2009, p. 1.
198 Annmarie Geddes Baribeau, “The National Flood Insurance Program Is Under Water: Can the Private Sector Help?” Contingencies , July/August 2013, p. 30. 199 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to rudd essay Address Financial and resume, Operational Issues,” p. 12. 200 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” GAO-13-858T, September 18, 2013, p. 1. 202 For some of the differences between NFIP and private insurance, see Property Casualty Insurers Association of America, “True Market-Risk Rates for Flood Insurance,” June 2011. And see American Academy of Actuaries, “The National Flood Insurance Program: Past, Present, and Future?” July 2011. 203 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to rudd bonhoeffer Address Financial and criteria for a good essay, Operational Issues,” p. 5. 205 Property Casualty Insurers Association of rudd America, p. 4. 206 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continue Attention Needed to Address Challenges,” p. Cook. 9.
207 GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to rudd bonhoeffer essay Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. Criteria For A. 7. 210 Quoted in The Week , “After Hurricane Sandy: Is Flood Insurance Bad for Taxpayers?” editorial, www.theweek.com, December 8, 2012. 211 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 212 J. Scott Holladay, “Flooding the Market,” Institute for Policy Integrity, New York University School of rudd Law, April 2010, p. 3. 214 Property Casualty Insurers Association of psychology America. 215 King, p. Essay. 20. And see GAO, “National Flood Insurance Program: Continued Actions Needed to Address Financial and Operational Issues,” p. 8. Repetitive loss properties are those with two or more claims payments of $1,000 or more over 10 years. 216 Thomas Frank, “Huge Losses Put the Federal Flood Insurance Plan in the Red,” USA Today , August 26, 2010. 217 John Stossel, “Taxpayers Get Soaked by Government’s Flood Insurance,” abcnews.com, September 20, 2009. 218 Holladay, p. 6.
219 Eli Lehrer, “Watery Marauders,” Competitive Enterprise Institute, August 2007, p. 8. 221 Ibid., p. xvii. 224 James Bovard, “Uncle Sam’s Flood Machine,” The Freeman , January 1, 2006. 225 Platt, pp. 194, 199. 227 Some commentators have suggested that the market failure of “adverse selection” is a barrier to private flood insurance.
But adverse selection is examples based on the idea that insurance buyers have hidden information not available to insurance companies. That is not the case with flood insurance because flood risks are public knowledge. 229 Andrew G. Simpson, “Private Flood Insurance Agency Now Selling in 15 States,” www.insurancejournal.com, February 10, 2014. 230 Scott E. Harrington, “Rethinking Disaster Policy,” Cato Institute, Regulation 23, no 1. And see Scott E. Harrington and rudd, Tom Miller, “Insurance Regulation and cook examples, Government Insurance,” Cato Handbook for Congress, 108th Congress . 231 GAO, “Flood Insurance: Strategies for Increasing Private Sector Involvement,” GAO-14-127, January 22, 2014. 232 Deloitte Center for Financial Services, “The Potential for Flood Insurance Privatization in the U.S.,” 2014, p. 3. 233 For a discussion, see King. 234 Nedra Pickler, “President Obama Signs Flood Insurance Relief Bill,” www.insurancejournal.com, March 24, 2014. The 2014 law was the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act. 235 Mark A. Hofmann, “Congress to Consider Privatizing the rudd NFIP,” www.businessinsurance.com, January 27, 2013. 237 Office of Rep.
Candice S. Miller, “Rep. Miller: Eliminate the National Flood Insurance Program,” press release, April 8, 2013. 239 For data on the seacoasts, see National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. This is the population in Special Flood Hazard Areas. 240 I’ve argued that most of the functions of the Corps should be privatized. See Chris Edwards, “Cutting the Army Corps of Engineers.”
241 Ibid. And see Michael Grunwald, “The Threatening Storm,” Time , August 2, 2007, and Michael Grunwald, “Setting the Stage for More Katrinas,” Time , August 2, 2007.