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B-403249; B-403249.3, Apptis Inc., September 30, 2010. DOCUMENT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. The decision issued on business networking the date below was subject to a GAO Protective Order. This redacted version has been approved for public release. Matter of: Apptis Inc. File: B-403249; B-403249.3. Date: September 30, 2010. Terry L. Elling, Esq., J. Thesis Statement Model! Scott Hommer III, Esq., and Dismas N. Locaria, Esq., Venable LLP, for the protester. Rand L. Networking! Allen, Esq., Kara M. Sacilotto, Esq., and Brian G. Walsh, Esq., Wiley Rein, LLP, for Booz Allen Hamilton, the intervenor.
James E. Hicks, Esq., Department of Justice, for the agency. Jonathan L. For A Good Essay! Kang, Esq., and dissertation James A. Spangenberg, Esq., Office of the General Counsel, GAO, participated in the preparation of the decision. 1. Protest that agency's discussions with offerors regarding their technical proposals were inadequate and bibical healing unequal is denied where the record shows that, during discussions, the agency identified significant weaknesses but did not identify non'significant weaknesses. 2. Protest challenging the agency's evaluation of awardee's proposed compensation plan is denied where the record shows that the agency reasonably concluded that the business dissertation, awardee's proposed compensation plan was realistic for the work proposed. Apptis Inc., of dissertation hard, Chantilly, Virginia, protests the award of a contract to Booz Allen Hamilton (BAH), of dissertation, McLean, Virginia, under request for writing proposals (RFP) No. DJD-10-R-0003, issued by the Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), for information security support services. Business! Apptis challenges the DEA's conduct of discussions concerning the hard, offerors' technical proposals, the evaluation of the awardee's technical proposal, and the reasonableness of the selection decision.
We deny the protest. The RFP was issued on December 18, 2009, and anticipated award of a labor-hour contract with fixed-price rates for a 1-year base period with four 1-year options. The DEA sought proposals to provide information security services in the following five areas: (1) information security program management, (2) information assurance, (3) communications security, (4) information security governance, and (5) incident management. Apptis is the incumbent contractor for these services. The solicitation advised offerors that proposals would be evaluated based on technical ability and price. The technical evaluation was based on networking four factors: technical capabilities, past performance, personnel qualifications, and corporate capabilities. For purposes of sources constitution essay, award, the business networking dissertation, RFP stated that the non-price factors were more important than price. Cover Sheets! RFP attach. 9. Business! The DEA received proposals from 12 offerors, including Apptis and BAH, by the closing date of February 10, 2010. The agency evaluated each offeror's technical and writing debate essay price proposal, and dissertation assigned ratings based on the four technical evaluation subfactors. The agency also rated each offeror's proposal as technically acceptable, conditionally acceptable, or unacceptable, and assigned an overall rating of low, moderate, or high risk. Agency Report (AR), Tab 13, Initial Technical Evaluation, The agency established a competitive range consisting of the four most highly rated proposals, including those of Apptis (94.1 points) and BAH (92.5 points)--the two most highly rated offerors.
AR, Tab 15, Competitive Range Memorandum, at 14. Sources Of Uk Constitution Essay! As relevant here, the agency conducted discussions with Apptis concerning its price proposal, but did not ask the protester to address any issues regarding its technical proposal. AR, Tab 8, Apptis Discussion Questions, at 1. The agency conducted discussions with BAH regarding three significant weaknesses concerning its technical proposal and past performance, as well as issues concerning its price proposal. AR, Tab 7, BAH Discussion Questions, at 1. The agency received and dissertation evaluated revised proposals from the competitive range offerors. As relevant here, DEA concluded that BAH's revised proposal adequately addressed the agency's concerns regarding past performance and raised the awardee's score under that subfactor. Essay! The agency also concluded that BAH's responses to the discussion question regarding key personnel merited a reduction in its score for that subfactor. Business Networking! The agency's final evaluation of Apptis' and debate BAH's proposals was as follows: AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 7, 12, 18.
In the award decision, the source selection authority (SSA) found that, in light of their technical scores and business networking proposed prices, the best value tradeoff analysis is ultimately between Apptis and BAH. Thesis Bibical Healing! Id. at 17. Business Dissertation! The SSA noted that [w]hile Apptis received the highest Technical score of any Offeror in the Competitive Range (94.1), they also proposed an overall price of $38,945.300.00, which is significantly higher than BAH's total proposed price of $33,275,408.00. Id. The SSA concluded that. the Offerors are virtually equal in terms of Technical abilities, and Apptis does not have sufficient technical superior to justify paying a premium of at least [deleted]% (and as high as [deleted]%) per year. Given the ever-so-slight difference in Technical Score and large difference in price, it is clear that BAH represents the best value to the Government. Id. at 18. DEA notified Apptis of the award to BAH, and provided a debriefing to the protester on July 1. This protest followed. Apptis argues that the DEA conducted discussions with the offerors that were inadequate and unequal. The protester also argues that the agency's evaluation of BAH's responses to thesis statement discussions was unreasonable, that the business dissertation, awardee may perpetrate a bait and switch scheme regarding its proposed key personnel, and that the agency's evaluation of BAH's proposed compensation plan was unreasonable. Finally, the thesis healing, protester argues that the selection decision was unreasonable.
We find no merit to any of the networking, protester's arguments. Inadequate and Unequal Discussions. Apptis argues that the agency conducted discussions that were inadequate and unequal, because the agency identified several concerns regarding BAH's technical proposal and past performance, but did not conduct discussions with Apptis concerning its technical proposal, even though weaknesses had been identified. Of Uk Constitution! In the initial evaluation, the agency identified four weaknesses and business networking dissertation three significant weaknesses in BAH's proposal, and eight weaknesses and no significant weaknesses in Apptis' proposal. AR, Tab 13, Initial Technical Evaluation, at 2-8. During discussions, the agency asked BAH to cover address during discussions the one significant weakness under the personnel qualifications subfactor concerning the lack of business networking dissertation, information for its key personnel, and the two significant weaknesses under the past performance factor concerning the management of a subcontractor under a contract with [deleted], and a termination of a task order for cause/default by [deleted]. AR, Tab 7, BAH Discussion Questions, at 1. The agency also asked BAH to writing address five issues concerning its price proposal.
Id. For Apptis, the agency did not conduct discussions regarding its technical proposal, but asked the protester to address five questions concerning its price proposal. AR, Tab 8, Apptis Discussion Questions, The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) requires agencies to conduct discussions with offerors in the competitive range concerning, at a minimum . Business! . . deficiencies, significant weaknesses, and adverse past performance information to which the offeror has not yet had an opportunity to respond. Thesis Statement Model! FAR sect. 15.306(d)(3). When an business networking agency engages in discussions with an criteria good essay offeror, the business dissertation, discussions must be meaningful, that is, sufficiently detailed so as to lead an offeror into the areas of dissertation binding manchester, its proposal requiring amplification or revision in a manner to materially enhance the offeror's potential for receiving the award. FAR sect. 15.306(d); Bank of Am. , B-287608, B-287608.2, July 26, 2001, 2001 CPD para. 137 at 10-11.
In conducting exchanges with offerors, agency personnel also may not engage in conduct that . . . Networking! favors one offeror over another, FAR sect. 15.306(e)(1); in particular, agencies may not engage in what amounts to disparate treatment of the competing offerors. Front Line Apparel Group , B-295989, June 1, 2005, 2005 CPD para. 116 at 3-4. Here, the record shows that the agency identified numerous concerns regarding both offerors' technical proposals, which the agency viewed as either weaknesses or significant weaknesses. The agency did not provide discussions for either offeror regarding the weaknesses identified in dissertation binding manchester the technical proposals that were not significant.
As our Office has consistently held, agencies are not required to afford offerors all-encompassing discussions or to discuss every aspect of a proposal that receives less than the maximum score, and business networking are not required to cover sheets papers advise an business networking dissertation offeror of a minor weakness that is writing debate essay not considered significant, even where the weakness subsequently becomes a determinative factor in choosing between two closely ranked proposals. Networking Dissertation! New Breed, Inc. Debate! , B-400554 et al. , Dec. 5, 2008, 2009 CPD para. 4. Although discussions must address deficiencies and significant weaknesses identified in proposals, the precise content of discussions is largely a matter of the contracting officer's judgment. BS Transport, Inc. , B-402695, July 9, 2010, 2010 CPD para. 161 at 6. We conclude that the agency's decision to conduct discussions concerning only significant weaknesses is consistent with the FAR and our decisions, and thus provides no basis to sustain the protest. Furthermore, because the agency did not discuss any non-significant weaknesses in the technical proposals with either BAH or Apptis, we think that the agency treated the offerors equally. Networking! The protester also contends that the agency's designation of the concerns regarding its technical proposal as weaknesses and the concerns regarding BAH's technical proposal as significant weaknesses was unreasonable. We think that the agency's characterizations were reasonable.
With regard to BAH, the for research, agency stated that the awardee submitted limited personnel information under the key personnel subfactor, and networking dissertation that [w]ithout this information the depth of specific experience and breadth of overall experience of the Proposed Key Personnel could not be determined. AR, Tab 13, Initial Technical Evaluation, at 8. The agency also identified two areas of adverse past performance by BAH that were found to be significant weaknesses. Id. We think that the agency reasonably viewed these concerns as significant weaknesses, as opposed to weaknesses. In contrast, none of the eight weaknesses identified in for research Apptis' technical proposal identified a deficiency or area of unacceptability, and business networking dissertation none of the weaknesses cited in the technical evaluation were cited in the selection decision as areas of weakness. See AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 10-16. On this record, we think that the criteria for a essay, protester does not demonstrate that the business dissertation, agency unreasonably failed to characterize these weaknesses as significant weaknesses that required discussions, and conclude that the for research papers, protester's disagreement with the agency's judgment here provides no basis to business sustain the protest. In sum, we find no merit to the protester's arguments concerning the hard, conduct of discussions. BAH's Responses to Discussion Questions. Dissertation! Next, Apptis contends that the DEA's evaluation of constitution essay, BAH's responses to its discussion questions was unreasonable. As discussed above, the agency asked BAH to address significant weaknesses concerning its past performance and its proposed approach under the business dissertation, personnel qualifications subfactor.
The DEA asked BAH to address two negative past performance references: (1) a contract with [deleted] under which a dispute between BAH and a subcontractor led to the subcontractor's withdrawal from the contract, and thesis healing (2) a contract with [deleted] that was terminated for cause/default based on the assignment of BAH personnel without the proper security clearance. AR, Tab 7, BAH Discussion Questions, at 1. BAH explained in its revised proposal that the concerns under the [deleted] contract arose from its management of a subcontractor regarding the agreement to initial contract terms and billing practices, which led to the subcontractor's withdrawal from the contract. The awardee stated that it replaced the subcontractor without any impact to the client, and implemented management practices to avoid similar problems in the future. AR, Tab 25, BAH Responses to Discussion Questions, [deleted] Past Performance, May 26, 2010, at 1-2. With regard to the termination under the [deleted] task order, BAH stated that the termination was the first and only termination for cause/default experienced by the company, the personnel assignments did not result in any improper disclosure of classified materials, the problem was quickly resolved, and BAH still works for the same agency client under a different contract. Id. , [deleted] Past Performance, at 1-2. DEA concluded that BAH's responses to the past performance discussion questions adequately addressed the dissertation, agency's concerns, and merited an increase in its past performance score from 26.7 to 27.0 points. AR, Tab 14, Final Technical Evaluation, at 3-4.
Apptis argues that the agency could not have reasonably raised BAH's technical score in response to the discussion questions because, in the protester's view, these were issues that could not be corrected. Protester's Comments at 30. Sheets Papers! The protester further argues that the agency did not meaningfully consider the awardee's responses to the past performance questions, and merely accepted the protester's assurances regarding the corrective actions taken in response to the performance problems. We think that the agency reasonably concluded that BAH's responses to the discussion questions addressed the agency's concerns and business networking dissertation merited an increase in its evaluation score. As discussed above, the FAR requires agencies to conduct discussions with offerors concerning, at hard a minimum, deficiencies, significance weaknesses, and adverse past performance information to which the offeror has not yet had an networking opportunity to respond.
FAR sect. 15.306(d)(3). We find no merit to the protester's argument that negative past performance information cannot be addressed or explained by an offeror in a way that casts a more positive light on that information, or that agencies are precluded from finding that an offeror's explanation of negative information warrants an improved past performance rating. Dissertation Hard! We also find no merit to dissertation the protester's argument that the agency merely accepted, without meaningful evaluation, the protester's explanations regarding the negative past performance information. In this regard, the agency's revised technical evaluation and the selection decision specifically discuss areas of BAH's discussion responses concerning BAH's corrective actions and preventative measures, which the agency viewed as providing confidence in the awardee's ability to avoid future performance problems.
See AR, Tab 14, Revised Technical Evaluation, at 4-5; Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 10. Next, the writing essay, agency asked BAH to address the agency's concerns regarding its key personnel, in particular, concerns about the proposed individuals' experience and qualifications. AR, Tab 7, BAH Discussion Questions, at 1. The protester provided the business, requested information in thesis its revised proposal. The agency concluded that the additional information demonstrated that the networking, awardee's proposed project manager did not demonstrate significant experience, and that the resumes submitted for a consultant did not demonstrate experience with all of the constitution, statement of networking, work (SOW) labor categories. AR, Tab 14, Final Technical Evaluation, at 4. Sheets! On the basis of this evaluation, the agency lowered the awardee's score for this subfactor from networking dissertation, 13.7 to 12.7 points. Id. Apptis argues that the DEA should have viewed the weaknesses in BAH's response as more significant, and that they should have resulted in a lower score under the key personnel subfactor.
The protester's disagreement with the agency's judgment, however, provides no basis to dissertation sustain the protest. Networking Dissertation! See VT Griffin Servs., Inc. , B'299869.2, Nov. 10, 2008, 2008 CPD para. 219 at statement 4. Networking! On this record, we conclude that the writing, agency's evaluation of the awardee's responses to the discussions questions was reasonable. Bait and Switch of dissertation, BAH Key Personnel. Next, Apptis argues that BAH engaged in an improper bait and switch scheme concerning its proposed key personnel.
Specifically, the healing, protester contends that one of its employees was aware of a conversation involving a DEA employee, in which it was stated that the agency knew that the dissertation, awardee would not provide personnel identified in its proposal. The protester also contends that emails sent to Apptis staff concerning the possibility of employment indicate an intent to substitute key personnel. Sources Of Uk Essay! An offeror may not propose to use specific personnel that it does not expect to use during contract performance, as doing so would have an adverse effect on the integrity of the competitive procurement system and generally provides a basis for proposal rejection. AdapTech Gen. Scientific, LLC , B-293867, June 4, 2004, 2004 CPD para. 126 at 5. To establish an impermissible bait and business networking switch scheme, a protester must show that a firm either knowingly or negligently represented that it would rely on binding manchester specific personnel that it did not expect to business dissertation furnish during contract performance, and that the misrepresentation was relied on by the agency and had a material effect on the evaluation results. Data Mgmt.
Servs. Joint Venture , B-299702, B-299702.2, July 24, 2007, 2007 CPD para. 139 at 10. The RFP required offerors to provide letters of commitment for individuals proposed for all key personnel positions. RFP Attach. 9, para. 3.1. BAH provided letters dated February 9, 2010 for six individuals proposed for key positions. AR, Tab 25, BAH Technical Proposal, Letters of Commitment, at thesis healing 4, 7, 10, 14, 17, 20. The DEA states that it had no reason to question these letters of commitment, and that it has not received any indication that the awardee will not provide the proposed key personnel. Business Dissertation! Contracting Officer's Statement at 15.
The protester nevertheless argues that it has identified evidence suggesting that BAH did not intend to provide the key personnel it proposed. Writing Essay! Specifically, the protester provided a declaration of an Apptis employee, who states that he was privy to a conversation . . . with a DEA employee with direct knowledge and insight into business, the Solicitation. Thesis! Protest attach. 8, Decl. of Apptis Employee, at 1-2. Business Networking Dissertation! The Apptis employee states that the writing, conversation indicated that it was known by both BAH and the Agency that at least one, or more of the individuals identified, presumably including Key Personnel, in business networking BAH's proposal would not actually be available to essay work on the Solicitation's resulting contract. Id. The agency states that it is not aware of any such conversation or aware of any intention by BAH not to provide its proposed key personnel. Furthermore, as the agency notes, the declaration by the Apptis employee does not identify the DEA employee, and does not state that the BAH employees discussed were key personnel.
In the absence of more specific information, we do not think that this declaration supports the protester's argument concerning an improper bait and switch scheme. The protester also argues that emails sent by BAH to Apptis staff on the incumbent contract indicate that the awardee intends to not provide the networking dissertation, key personnel identified in its proposal. These emails, all of which contained the same text, were sent on July 2, 2010, by a BAH recruiter to Apptis staff who worked on the incumbent contract. The emails stated that the BAH recruiter wanted to reach out to you to discuss some up and coming opportunities [BAH] is engaged in because you are familiar with the client as you are currently working for them (DEA Information Assurance Program). Supp.
Protest (July 8, 2010), attachs. 1-6. The emails asked the Apptis employees to contact the thesis, BAH recruiter and business provide a resume if they were interested. We do not think these emails demonstrate that BAH did not intend to thesis statement provide the key personnel identified in its proposal. Networking Dissertation! The emails do not indicate that the Apptis staff are being recruited by BAH to fill key personnel positions, and do not demonstrate that the awardee was seeking to replace the dissertation hard binding manchester, key personnel identified in its proposal. To the networking dissertation, extent that the protester speculates that BAH's recruiting efforts suggest an improper bait and switch scheme, such speculation provides no basis to sustain the for research papers, protest. See Kellogg Brown Root Servs., Inc. , B-298694.7, June 22, 2007, 2007 CPD para. 124 at 8 n.6. In sum, we do not think that the networking, record shows that BAH misrepresented the availability of its key personnel, or that the agency had any reason to criteria analysis question the awardee's representations regarding these individuals.
BAH's Proposed Employee Compensation. Dissertation! Next, Apptis argues that the agency did not reasonably evaluate BAH's proposed employee compensation plan. Specifically, the protester contends that the agency did not comply with the requirements of the clause at FAR sect. 52.222-46, Evaluation of Compensation for Professional Employees, which was included in the solicitation. The recruitment and retention subfactor of the corporate capabilities evaluation factor required offerors to demonstrate the ability to cover for research provide and retain experienced and qualified personnel in accordance with the SOW Labor Categories, and provide [a] detailed description of the Offeror's recruiting and retention program and procedures for determining and assuring the competency of personnel to networking perform the required services RFP attach. Cover Papers! 9, para. 4.2. Networking! The RFP also included the clause at FAR sect.
52.222-46, which states that the agency will evaluate an offeror's proposed compensation plan to assure that it reflects a sound management approach and understanding of the contract requirements, and further states that the evaluation will include an assessment of the offeror's ability to provide uninterrupted high-quality work. FAR sect. 52.222-46(a). As relevant here, the clause also states that the compensation plan will be considered in terms of its impact upon good essay, recruiting and retention, its realism, and its consistency with a total plan for compensation. Id. Apptis argues that the DEA unreasonably concluded that BAH's proposed compensation was realistic. In particular, the protester contends that the agency's evaluation of the business networking, awardee's proposed compensation did not demonstrate that the agency had conducted realism analysis that met the thesis healing, requirements of business, FAR sect. Debate! 52.222-46.
This FAR clause requires agencies to evaluate whether the compensation plan proposed by an offeror is business realistic. In the context of binding manchester, a fixed-price labor hour contract, we think that the FAR clause anticipates an evaluation of whether an awardee understands the contract requirements, and has proposed a compensation plan appropriate for those requirements--in effect, a price realism evaluation. See ENMAX Corp. , B- 281965, May 12, 1999, 99-1 CPD para. 102 at business networking 10-11. As our Office has repeatedly held, the depth of an agency's price realism analysis is a matter within the sound exercise of the agency's discretion. Navistar Defense, LLC; BAE Sys., Tactical Vehicle Sys.
LP , B-401865 et al. , Dec. 14, 2009, 2009 CPD para. Healing! 258 at 17. The agency states that it relied on two findings in concluding that BAH's proposed compensation was reasonable. First, the agency concluded that BAH's proposal merited a strength under the recruitment and retention subfactor as follows: The Offeror provides excellent training benefits for their employees. They commit [deleted] hours for networking dissertation training and $[deleted] for tuition reimbursement for degree or certification programs annually for for a analysis essay employees. The proposal stated the Offeror's retention goal is [deleted]% with an actual average well above the industry standard. AR, Tab 13, Initial Consensus Evaluation, at 8. In the business networking, selection decision, the SSA also stated that [t]he Offeror provided a strong contract management plan, along with a solid training benefits program and high retention rate ([deleted]%).
AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 15. Second, the agency compared BAH's proposed labor rates to thesis labor categories on the awardee's General Services Administration (GSA) Federal Supply Schedule contracts, and business networking found that the vast majority of BAH's proposed prices are within [deleted]% of their GSA contract prices. Id. at 18. The agency concluded that this analysis of labor rates demonstrated that the awardee's prices were reasonable and realistic, and also that the analysis provides additional assurance that BAH will be able to fulfill the contract requirements and retain the personnel necessary for successful contract performance. Id. at writing debate 18-19. Business Dissertation! The protester argues that the agency could not have reasonably concluded that proposed rates that were [deleted] percent lower than GSA schedule rates were realistic. We think that a difference in dissertation hard manchester proposed rates within this range does not show that BAH's rates were per se too low. To the extent that the protester argues that the agency's judgment was unreasonable, the protester's disagreement provides no basis to dissertation sustain the protest. See ENMAX , supra (concluding that agency's comparison of proposed labor rates to labor rates compiled by Bureau of healing, Labor Statistics was adequate to business dissertation satisfy realism requirements of FAR sect. Good Analysis! 52.222-46). In sum, we think the record shows that the agency reasonably concluded that BAH's proposed compensation was realistic. Finally, Apptis argues that the networking, DEA's selection decision was unreasonable.
The protester contends that the SSA relied on numerical and adjectival ratings without considering the underlying merits of the offerors' proposals, and also argues that the SSA unreasonably concluded that the offerors were technically equal--thereby improperly converting the procurement into a low-price, technically acceptable award. Thesis Statement! We think that the record shows that the agency's selection decision did not rely on the numerical and adjectival ratings, alone. Business Networking! In this regard, the statement model, selection decision summarizes the strengths and dissertation weaknesses for each offeror, and why those strengths and bibical healing weaknesses support the numerical scores assigned to the offerors' technical proposals. AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 10-16. The discussion of dissertation, these strengths and statement model weaknesses demonstrates that the SSA did not rely solely on the numerical and adjectival ratings. The protester also contends that the record shows that the agency improperly concluded that the offerors' proposals were technically equal, citing the following statement in the selection decision: In conclusion, it is clear that the Offerors are virtually equal in terms of Technical abilities, and Apptis does not have sufficient technical superiority to justify paying a premium of at least [deleted]% (and as high as [deleted]%) per year. Id. at 18. The protester argues that this conclusion demonstrates that the dissertation, agency made award based on BAH's lower price, as opposed to a best-value determination as required by the RFP. We think that the plain language of the quote cited by Apptis belies the protester's contention. In this regard, the selection decision explicitly states that Apptis's proposal was technically superior to BAH's proposal, but that this advantage does not justify paying a premium of at of uk essay least [deleted]% (and as high as [deleted]%) per year.
Id. Furthermore, the networking, selection decision states in dissertation hard binding manchester numerous places that Apptis' technical proposal received higher scores as compared to BAH. Business Dissertation! Id. at 17-18. The selection decision concludes that in light of the ever-so-slight difference in Technical Score and large difference in sheets papers price, BAH should be selected for contract award. Id. at 18.
On this record, we find no merit to the protester's argument that the agency improperly concluded that the offerors were technically equal and made the selection decision solely based on price. The protest is networking denied. Sheets Papers! Acting General Counsel.  The technical capabilities factor had six subfactors: incident management program, information assurance program, information security governance program, program and administrative support, information security program management, and business networking dissertation communication security program. RFP attach. 9, para. 1. Thesis Healing! The personnel qualifications factor had two subfactors: key personnel and staffing capabilities. Id. para. 3. Dissertation! The corporate capabilities factor had two subfactors: quality control, and recruitment and retention. Id. Dissertation Binding Manchester! para. 4. Dissertation!  Apptis also argues that the FAR, in dissertation addition to requiring agencies to address deficiencies, significant weaknesses, and negative past performance not previously addressed, also states that [t]he contracting officer also is encouraged to discuss other aspects of the offeror's proposal that could, in the opinion of the contracting officer, be altered or explained to enhance materially the business networking, proposal's potential for award. FAR sect. 15.306(d)(3).
Apptis contends that DEA should therefore have discussed the dissertation hard manchester, non-significant weakneses in its proposal because they could have allowed the protester to improve its chances for award. The language of this FAR provision, however, is clearly discretationary; as discussed above, we find that the agency did not abuse its discretion in its conduct of discussions here.  Apptis also raises various untimely challenges regarding the agency's evaluation of the business networking dissertation, proposed employee compensation. In its report on the protest, the agency explained that it had compared BAH's proposed labor rates to its GSA schedule rates to determine whether they were reasonable and realistic. Contracting Officer's Statement at 12, citing AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 18. In its comments on of uk the agency report, the protester argued that the agency did not provide any documentation of this analysis. However, the networking, agency's supplemental report in responding to this issue noted that the selection decision in fact contained a chart showing the analysis.
Supp. AR at 7, citing AR, Tab 12, Selection Decision, at 20. For A Analysis! The protester's comments on the SAR challenge the analysis in the chart for the first time. Because these challenges were not raised within 10 days of receipt of the agency's report, which contained the analysis, these arguments are untimely under our Bid Protest Regulations. 4 C.F.R. sect. 21.2(a)(2) (2010).  The protester raises other collateral issues. Business Networking! For example, the protester contends that the agency did not conduct an adequate price reasonableness evaluation. BAH, however, proposed a lower price than Apptis; thus the protester could not have been prejudiced by the agency's price reasonableness evaluation, as such an evaluation examines whether an offeror's proposed price is too high, as opposed to too low. DB Consulting Group, Inc. , B-401543.2, B-401543.3, Apr.
28, 2010, 2010 CPD para. 109 at 8. Writing Essay! We have reviewed all of the protester's arguments, and find that none has merit. We deny the protest. We grant the request. We deny the protest. We dismiss the protests as untimely. We deny the request for reconsideration. We sustain the business networking dissertation, protest in part and deny the protest in part. We deny the protest.
We dismiss the protest. For A Good! We dismiss the protests. Business Dissertation! Looking for more? Browse all our products here. GAO's Office of General Counsel issues legal decisions, opinions, and reports on bid protests, appropriations law, and other issues of thesis model, federal law.
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nihilist resume Regeneration through Creativity – The Frontier in Paul Auster's Moon Palace. In his novel Moon Palace (1989) Paul Auster uses a variety of different frontier-like settings. He especially contrasts the original frontier of the American Midwest and West, with urban settings that show characteristics of the frontier. While the protagonists in the novel can experience a creative act that can trigger a regeneration or rebirth at the original frontier, the dissertation urban settings do not offer the criteria for a analysis opportunity for such a regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this article will be to show the differences between the urban settings and the frontier of the Amercian West as they are portrayed in the novel. Furthermore it will be discussed what is necessary for a character in Auster's novel to go through this regeneration through creativity. Paul Auster's novel Moon Palace (1989) is divided into three major parts, each telling the life story of one of three men, Marco Stanley Fogg, Thomas Effing, and business networking dissertation, Solomon Barber.
As the plot proceeds it is criteria for a good, revealed that Effing is the father of Barber and business, also Marco's grandfather. Thus a genealogy between the three is criteria for a good essay, established. Business Dissertation! Their individual life stories resemble each other so much, and they are so deeply interwoven with each other, that Martin Klepper, for instance, talks about a threefold repetition of plot (Klepper 1996: 297). Beside the genealogy that is thesis bibical, gradually established, the major link between the three plots of Moon Palace is the great significance of the American West, and the frontier for all three protagonists. They all find themselves at the geographic location of the historic frontier at some point in the novel: Thomas Effing's life story is based on his experiences in business networking dissertation, Utah; at the end of the novel Marco Stanley Fogg travels to the frontier himself, walking several hundred miles from Lake Powell to for research the Pacific Coast; Solomon Barber teaches at various colleges in dissertation, the Midwest. It would be wrong however, to assume that the hard binding American West is the only frontier setting within the novel. Every major character is faced with his own personal, frontier-like setting that forces him to evolve into business networking dissertation a 20th century version of the traditional frontiersman. Like the original frontier of the American West, such frontier-like settings challenge traditional forms of authority and require the characters to adapt to hostile circumstances with determination and resourcefulness. In doing so, a unique mixture of individualism is prompted, causing on occasion isolation or and sometimes requiring cooperation with strangers.
So when Marco is driven out of thesis healing his apartment he moves to Central Park, which, as will be shown, can be read as an networking Urban Frontier. 1 Solomon Barber roams the thesis American Midwest in pursuit of professional success and having failed at this, he retreats into his own obese body. Significantly the plot of the business dissertation novel is set in the 1960s, in which John F. Kennedy had announced a 'New Frontier.' All these different frontier settings are united in writing essay, the novel by business networking dissertation the moon as common symbolism. Sources Constitution Essay! The moon keeps reappearing in the novel, both as physical appearance in business networking dissertation, the sky and within the language and names used throughout the whole text: Several critics have commented on the use of hard binding manchester moon symbolism in Moon Palace and there are many different interpretations offered.
The moon, according to Andrew Addy for example, is a metaphor for the mind, and for our darker nature (Addy 1996: 160). Sven Birkerts suggests that the moon appears frequently in order to place everything under the aspect of fancy and madness (lunacy) (Birkerts 1992: 197), Christian Berkemeier sees it as a symbol of nondeterminability (Berkemeier 2002: 149) and William Dow even claims that the symbol of the moon only appears randomly (Dow 1996: 197). The most convincing interpretation however, is that argued for by Heinz Ickstadt. Business Dissertation! He regards the moon as a unifying symbol that embraces the variety of plots within the novel. Together with the plots it also unites the papers different frontier settings and brings them together under the business metaphor of a greater, final frontier that embodies all desires and dreams, and triggers creativity and imagination (Ickstadt 1998: 196). So the moon, and the restaurant Moon Palace, which can be read as the earthly representation of the model moon, bring together the various frontiers in only one symbol: In this article some of the frontier settings that the networking characters in Moon Palace experience will be discussed and set into criteria good essay relation to each other. Networking Dissertation! In the first part these settings will be described and their specific representation of the frontier will be discussed. The emphasis here will naturally be on those frontier settings experienced by the protagonists, Marco Stanley Fogg and Thomas Effing. In a second part the writing debate results of the analysis of the dissertation frontier settings will be used to work out the regenerating force of each of criteria for a good these different frontiers.
In doing this they will also be compared to each other in order to explain why some of the settings have a regenerating effect on the characters and dissertation, why others do not. 2 The Mythic Frontier: Thomas Effing in Utah. Effing claims that he used to thesis healing socialize with the artists of the Hudson River School, a group of business American painters that specialized in portraying the wilderness landscapes of the Amercian West. With his connection to this group Effing creates a context of myths and legends concerning the American West. In particular Effing refers to dissertation three painters of business dissertation this school: Thomas Cole, Ralph Blakelock and Thomas Moran. When Marco moves into his room in Effing's apartment he finds only one picture in it, a large etching in a black varnished frame that depicted a mythological scene crowded with human figures and a plethora of architectural details ( MP : 108).
Together with his comment that it is a panel of Thomas Coles The Course of Empire series, this picture can easily be identified as the third painting of the series, called The Consummation of Empire . The painting shows the empire at the climax of of uk constitution essay its power and wealth, a classical city basking in networking, the fullness of cover papers its prosperity (Flexner 1962: 51). Business Dissertation! The whole series however, depicts the rise and fall of an empire from the thesis statement savage state through its greatest wealth and power to destruction and networking dissertation, desolation. Taken out of the context of the writing debate whole series, the picture shows the promises of wealth the frontier seemed to offer without the dooming fall and destruction. Thus, the picture can foreshadow Effing's enlightening experiences at the frontier and give a possible interpretation of Marco's desolating experiences in Central Park at the same time. Business! Taken alone, it predicts the mythological dimension of Effing's narration, but within the context of the whole series it already alludes to what has to be the consequence of the conquest of sources constitution essay civilization and of the wealth and business dissertation, prosperity that come along with it: the thesis statement decadence and business networking, the decline of the.
empire and of civilization as such. This foreshadowed decline of the statement model empire will be important for the interpretation of Marco's experiences in Urban Frontier of Central Park before he came to work for Effing. Before Effing is willing to business networking dissertation tell his story he instructs Marco to closely study another painting, Moonlight by Ralph Blakelock ( MP : 133ff). Again, this picture not only functions as support for the mythological dimension of Effing's story, but also plays an important role for the description of frontier settings in the novel as a whole. Writing Debate Essay! The elaborate scene in which Marco travels to business the Brooklyn Museum to see the picture, and bibical healing, his detailed description of it are at the ideological center of Moon Palace (Weissenburger 1994: 75). Moonlight shows a peaceful and business networking, pastoral scene, in papers, which Native Americans seem to be in perfect harmony with the landscape: I was only guessing, of course, but it struck me that Blakelock was painting an American idyll, the world the Indians had inhabited before the white man came to destroy it ( MP : 139). But again , there is more to the painting than only the idyllic pastoral scene: Perhaps, I thought to myself, this picture was meant to stand for everything we had lost.
It was not a landscape, it was a memorial, a death song for business networking a vanished world ( MP : 139). So Moonlight , like Consummation of Empire depicts an bibical idyllic scene at first sight. The two pictures together show the two major promises of the frontier: wealth and harmony with nature. Dissertation! But both pictures also predict the transitoriness of these promises. While with Moonlight it is Marco who comes to this conclusion, it seems as if Effing is thesis statement model, aware of it as well, if only in hindsight. On the one hand he wants Marco to business networking study the Blakelock painting to understand the transitoriness of the frontier myths, on the other, he confesses that another painter had a greater influence on him when he was young. He refers to dissertation binding manchester Thomas Moran as the person who convinced him of taking the trip to the frontier (cf.
MP : 141). At the same time however, he now regards Moran and his followers as the major representatives of the philosophy of Manifest Destiny, which is the networking main reason for the destruction of the pastoral idyll: Unlike Cole's and Blakelock's pictures, Moran's paintings do not suggest the essay threat of civilization for the wilderness of the frontier. He forthrightly declared his principles to be idealistic, not realistic [. ] (Yaeger 1996: 71). Business Networking! So Effing's preoccupation with the Blakelock painting and his refusal to tell his story before Marco has seen it, shows that he is now aware of the transitoriness of the idyllic, mythological frontier his tale is about. He also wants Marco to understand that.
as well. Hard Binding! But at the same time the confession that it was Moran who made him visit the frontier in the first place shows the idealistic, or rather ideological and mythological dimension of his experiences in Utah. 2. These legendary landscapes, which he knew in business, theory from cover sheets for research Morans paintings, are encountered by Effing as soon as he arrives in business, the desert of Utah. Of Uk Constitution Essay! The vast open spaces overwhelm Effing and business networking dissertation, leave him with an existential fear of losing himself: At the for research papers American frontier Effing is business networking dissertation, confronted with the 'sublime,' a force of feeling brought about by a natural phenomenon that is writing debate essay, so powerful in its infinity that it is both terrifying and business dissertation, fascinating at the same time. Criteria For A Analysis Essay! For the time being, Effing cannot handle the experience of the sublime, he is not able to paint or draw any pictures, as he is so overpowered. While the landscape such is described in business dissertation, the novel as a mythic place, the action that unfolds in this landscape is obviously based on manchester, the legends and stereotypes concerning the American frontier, just as they might be found in a dime novel or a Wild West movie. All the characters Effing meets and their behavior are clichÈ-like figures of greenhorns, frontiersmen and outlaws: Upon his arrival in networking dissertation, Salt Lake City Effing calls himself a rich greenhorn from back East. Their guide through the desert, Jack Scoresby, is described as a former cavalary soldier, who knew the criteria for a good analysis territory well, he knew it as well as anyone else we could find ( MP : 152f). Scoresby turns out to be a hard-boiled frontiersman, who does not understand Effing's ambitions to paint and who is unsympathetic to Byrne, Effing's companion, who is severely injured after falling down a steep cliff.
Not hesitating to shoot Byrne (just like he shot a horse with a broken bone only moments before), Scoresby simply leaves Effing and Byrne behind as Effing has refused to let him kill Byrne and also did not agree to leave him by himself (cf. MP : 158f). This behavior marks Scoresby as the stereotypical frontiersman, who knows the ways of the networking dissertation wilderness but in his behavior is crude and for a analysis, uncivilized. Business! His acts, though incomprehensible for writing essay Effing, are based on a certain way of living, and refer to their own codes. This behavior is typical for most frontier characters in Western movies, whether they are cowboys, marshals, or social outcasts (cf. Business Networking Dissertation! Belton 1994: 221). They all left the codes of civilization behind to debate essay follow a new way of life that has its own codes of honor and business dissertation, conduct. This comes as a necessity in order to be able to survive in an unexplored and possibly dangerous and harmful surrounding like the frontier. It is here that Effing learns that nothing is ever certain and that you must never take anything for granted ( MP : 111).
No less stereotypical is the description of the Gresham brothers, the band of criminals that Effing has to confront in the cave some time after Byrnes death. Thesis Statement! They are described as unscrupulous outlaw, who did not hesitate to kill the hermit (the original resident of Effing's cave) whilst he was sleeping. Their only networking dissertation, actions in the novel, beside the murder, consist of playing cards and heavy drinking (cf. MP : 178). Stereotypically outlaws in Wild West movies have a hideout somewhere in the wilderness, and for bibical healing the Gresham brothers this hideout is Effing's cave. Business! In a shoot-out, in some aspects similar to the great showdown at the end of a Western movie, Effing is finally able to kill all three outlaws and takes their loot, obviously gained from a stagecoach robbery, a typical crime for any stereotypical Wild West outlaw (cf. MP : 180f). The plot of Effing's narration is significantly driven onwards by these acts of writing debate violence. Without Byrnes death, Effing would never find the cave, without Effing's murder of the Gresham brothers and business, the fortune he gains from it he would never be able to return to civilization (cf. Weissenburger 1994: 76).
The importance of violence for Effing's tale seems to go along with Richard Slotkins theory of regeneration through violence as an important part of American mythological narrative structures (cf. Slotkin 1973: 179). But in fact Effing is not so much regenerated by these acts of violence as he is de-mythicized. Only Byrnes death helps Effing overcome the petrifaction he had suffered from since his confrontation with the sublime. In the cave Effing starts to paint again, more creative and more passionate than ever before.
After the second act of violence he is able to leave the mythic frontier for good. While violence and healing, shoot-outs are important parts of the legends established by dissertation Wild West dime novels and movies, the way these action are described in Moon Palace differ significantly from these other stories, where violence often has a heroic and purifying dimension. When Effing approaches the cave to face the criteria Gresham brothers he is far from the networking dissertation stereotypical fearless gunfighter, and even one of the outlaws starts to cry when he is faced with his own death (cf. MP : 180). As Andrew Addy argues: This solipsism therefore helps Effing overcome the feeling of existential loss he had experienced facing the sublime in the frontier landscape. If the violence is for a, not part of the actual myth however, but instead a means of business dissertation Effing's inner development, it can also explain why both Scoresby and Effing get away with their violent actions without being held responsible for them. Auster makes use of the stereotypical absence of conventional authority structures at the frontier to establish. a meta-realistic dimension of authority.
Effing's deeds are not pursued by legal authorities. Instead, when his spine breaks as he is mugged much later in writing debate, the streets of San Francisco, he regards this as a punishment brought upon him by destiny and business networking dissertation, as a redemption from the sins he has committed: He had been punished, and because the punishment was a terrible one, he was no longer obligated to punish himself ( MP : 198). In his description of thesis healing his frontier experience in the desert of Utah, Effing moves from a very mythicized, legendary narration, to an account that is more detached from the traditional myths and legends but that is still no more realistic. The story of his adventures in the cave can rather be seen as a parable for the regeneration process Effing goes through at the frontier. The question thus, is not whether Effing is telling the truth within the fictional construct of the novel, but rather what meanings Effing is trying to convey with his narration, as Marco finds out: In that way Marco questions the truth of Effing's narration several times in the novel (cf. MP : 183 and dissertation, 276).
Even though it is told as an authentic life story, there is enough doubt left to debate essay define it as part of the myths, and legends, of the frontier. During his time in business networking, the cave, Effing experiences a rebirth in a creative outburst. However, the question of if, and sheets for research, how regeneration is possible for Effing through his creativity needs to be discussed in comparison with Marco Foggs story and his individual frontier experiences. 3 The Urban Frontier: Marco Stanley Fogg in New York City. Thus, Marco's identity as the prototypical explorer or pioneer is already established throughout the first pages of the novel.
His name proved that travel was in my blood, that life would carry me to places where no man had ever been before ( MP : 6). Indeed, Marco's story is his quest for dissertation his identity, which turns out to be an exploration of his obscure genealogy. This is the quest that serves as a motivation for the unfolding of the narrative. Any other search in the novel, while most of the time starting as a characters attempt to escape a desperate situation, turns out constitution essay as a variation of this quest for identity and genealogy: Marco's struggle to come to terms with his financial problems on his own, forces him to live rough as a homeless person in Central Park. Desperate to networking dissertation learn from for research papers this first mistake and to find his place in business networking, the world he tries to turn into an altruist, which he claims to be his motivation in taking the position as Effing's assistant: At the end of the thesis statement model novel, Effing will turn out to business be his grandfather. Marco's job with him serves as the narrative framework to Effing's story, which portrays Effing's search for identity. It eventually leads to the introduction of dissertation hard Solomon Barber, who will turn out to be Marco's father. Barber's adolescent novel Kepler's Blood itself is just the business quest of a young boy for writing his own origin and genealogy. Later, Barber persuades Marco to business networking dissertation join him for an expedition to search Effing's cave which again is Barbers search for statement his lost father.
This search helps Marco find a new identity after his relationship with Kitty has failed, and business networking dissertation, eventually he learns about the for research papers link between Effing, Barber and himself on this journey. Networking! So the development of the genealogy from criteria analysis essay Effing to Marco is networking, closely linked to a similar ongoing search for identity on thesis statement, part of the three protagonists. This search takes Marco through different frontier settings, which accounts for the allusions to pioneers and explorers in his name. Furthermore, when Marco decides to replace his first name and his middle name by their initials, M.S., his uncle Victor mentions that these initials also stand for manuscript: Every man is the dissertation author of his own life [. ]. The book you are writing is not yet finished. Therefore, its a manuscript ( MP : 7). Bernd Herzogenrath argues that this connection suggests a link to the American Dream, describing Marco in criteria for a, terms of the American myth of the 'self-made man' who is symbolically writing his own story (Herzogenrath 1999: 126). Thus Marco's name is an networking dissertation allusion to his quest for identity as much as it links him with all the explorers and cover sheets papers, pioneers of history, including those who have conquered the business wilderness of the American West. The frontier situations Marco encounters increase significantly in the effect they have upon him. They also reflect the traditional American paradigm of the sheets for research Midwest as location of innocence and childhood, the business dissertation East as the location of statement model experience, and finally the West as the place of a new beginning (Berkemeier 2002: 149).
The first are imaginative frontiers, mental spaces that he is exploring. Networking! Growing up. in a time in which there are no more wildernesses to sources of uk constitution be conquered and no more unexplored spaces to be pioneered, Marco has to turn to mental spaces he can discover. Even as a child he and his uncle invent and explore imaginary worlds as a refuge from business dissertation real life: This escape into a frontier of imagination is repeated after Uncle Victor dies. To mourn him, Marco decides to read all the thesis bibical healing books he has inherited from Victor. Marc Chénetier argues that Victors book-buying parallels the course of western expansion, but it is also Marco whose reading process mirrors a journey to a frontier (Chénetier 1996: 118). Networking Dissertation! All in writing essay, all there are 1492 volumes, a number that evokes the memory of Columbus discovery of Amercia ( MP : 13). Business Dissertation! Marco reads the books in debate essay, the order he takes them out of the networking dissertation boxes Victor has sent to him. In so far he commits himself to an order that has been imposed on him by his uncle. However, the order in which he opens the boxes is an arbitrary one.
Thus it is Marco's own expedition into his uncles mental space: To overcome his financial needs, Marco sells the bibical healing books after he has read them. But because he had used the boxes with the books as his furniture, the interior of business dissertation his apartment vanishes bit by bit in this process (cf. MP : 23). Thus the consequences of Marco's reading have a spatial dimension, which supports the aspect of the pioneering movement into the mental frontier he is involved with. The further his way leads him into this frontier, the less traits of writing essay civilization his apartment shows until nothing is left. However, those two imaginary frontiers Marco encounters are merely a foreshadowing of his experiences in Central Park and of his quest in the West later in the novel. Their main purpose, thus, is to characterize Marco as a pioneer character.
It is not only his name and the fact that he encounters several frontier situations, that make Marco a pioneer. He also shows several characteristic traits of a frontiersman. When he learns that his monetary funds are almost exhausted, he devises a plan that maintains his independence from everybody else. Dissertation! He not only refuses any help from his friends but he also fails to tell them about his situation. So he also consciously rejects all other possibilities society could offer him scholarships, stipends, jobs, and loans: This already extreme individualism, which is typical for the frontiersman, is reinforced after he graduates from college and his telephone is disconnected. These two events mark his ultimate retreat from civilization as he is criteria for a good, now isolated from the outside world. The consistency with which Marco coheres to his self-destructive plan shows further typical traits of the dissertation frontiersman: determination and resolution. Once Marco has reached a decision about how to deal with his situation, he is not willing to change his mind, even though he is aware of the negative consequences his plan will have. This persistence, however, does not consist of a determination of bibical doing the right thing, instead he refuses to take any action at networking all, perhaps the only adequate decision for a postmodern pioneer:
In his determination to bibical healing carry on networking, with his original plan, Marco shows himself to be very creative in adapting to for a good essay new situations. He finds convincing excuses for his friends whenever they inquire about his whereabouts and he is able to convince himself of a hidden advantage in every deprivation. Networking Dissertation! Even when he finally has to search for food in garbage bins he puts up with it (cf. Writing Debate Essay! MP : 60). Dissertation! His ability to adjust to new situations is a further feature that marks him as a contemporary, urban frontiersman, a trait of personality that helps him live through his experiences in Central Park, which can be read as an Urban Frontier setting. As an sources of uk constitution essay Urban Pioneer, Marco finds his personal frontier setting in Central Park. His individualistic refusal to accept any help in his time of need causes him to become homeless and forces him to move into the park.
His time there foreshadows Effing's narration of his time in the desert of networking dissertation Utah. Marco himself regards Effing as a kindred spirit, who was somehow describing the same things I had felt ( MP : 183). But already the last weeks Marco spends in dissertation, his apartment mirror Effing's life in the cave. Business Networking Dissertation! They both have to realize that their supplies are limited and so they have to plan the use of their reserves. For Marco this is a matter financial calculating: For Effing, however, this is not so much a financial matter than rather a matter of planning the usage of the supplies he already has at sources of uk constitution essay hand: In their individualistic behavior, both Marco and Effing challenge civilization. They completely retreat in their cave or apartment, Marco even retreats further into networking the imaginary world of his books. They both refuse to take part in any activity that would be considered normal by civilization. Unlike Effing, who ends his retreat from civilization out of free will before his supplies come to their end, Marco finally has to realize that he failed in this challenge.
He does not fail because he is cover for research papers, not able to feed himself any longer, but rather because he is unable to business dissertation pay his rent (cf. Statement! MP : 45ff). Networking Dissertation! Thus money, as a purely material good, becomes the major reason for his failure. Hard Binding Manchester! The only possibility left for him is a further retreat into Central Park, where he can live as a homeless and does not depend on business, money any more. The park thus already shows one of the healing major features of the frontier: for Marco it serves as a safety valve, a place he can escape to from his failure in civilization. This notion of the park as seemingly redeeming space is supported by business networking dissertation a clear distinction between the park as natural, democratic space, and the streets as space of corrupted materialism and capitalism, of larger social malaise (Birkerts 1992: 345): Marco's description of the constitution park stresses the freedom from any social conventions or restraints and the liberty to choose ones own way of life, a freedom that does not seem possible in the streets. Business Dissertation! With regards to the park Marco claims that the essay grass and the trees were democratic, a statement that echoes. Frederick Jackson Turner's idea of the frontier as the cradle of American democracy ( MP : 57). The park, like the frontier, is a place of individualism where everybody is free to live the life they choose, and business, a place of democracy at the same time.
And like the original frontier, the park is cover sheets, a wilderness, even though it is just an business dissertation artificial wilderness. Marco recognizes the paradox of thesis living in business dissertation, a man-made natural world and even goes so far as to call it nature enhanced ( MP : 62). Here he feels safe and just before he is about to enter the thesis healing park he even feels like someone about to be reborn, like someone on the brink of discovering a new continent MP : 52). But the Urban Frontier of Central Park is not so much about a distinction between wilderness and civilization, it is business, rather a state of mind Marco finds himself in. His escape from the conventions of sheets society is symbolized by networking his retreat into the only statement, wilderness an urban society can still offer him. There he abandons former habits and codes of business dissertation conduct for a life that is seemingly free of these restraints. Thus he is willing to give up any comfort and to live rough from leftovers that visitors of the park have thrown away. Healing! Even though he does not romanticize his searches in networking, the garbage cans, he still tries not to writing see them as a sign of business networking his personal failure.
He rather calls them spiritual initiations ( MP : 61). Thus, Marco's attitude makes Central Park a frontier setting more than the thesis bibical description used in business, the novel. However, Marco's life in the park still resembles life at the frontier in various aspects. Like life at the frontier, his experiences in Central Park are not only influenced by a specific understanding of individualism, but also by cooperation among people in the park and by a certain void of authority structures. In spite of his individualism, Marco still depends to a certain degree upon the help of others to survive, both physically and criteria good, psychologically. A life completely isolated from society is not possible, even in the park. Business Networking Dissertation! In Central Park Marco gets help that he does not get on the street. People give him money or invite him for a picnic lunch or a game of softball: Those were happy moments for me, and they helped to carry me through some of the darker stretches when my luck seemed to have run out ( MP : 58).
The other people in the park also define the authority structure there. Even though Marco once encounters a policeman when he is searching for food in sources constitution essay, a garbage can, he is able to business escape further persecution by impersonating a student of Columbia University, doing research on an Urban Studies project (cf. MP : 60). Thesis Bibical Healing! The police and other authorities from the society outside the park do not have any power or influence within the park. Instead there is a lack of authority that makes the park a dangerous place. Business Networking! During his time there Marco experiences several dangerous moments but he is able to remain unscathed (cf. Writing Essay! MP : 65). The greatest threats for Marco however, are not crime or official authorities. His greatest danger comes from the business networking unpredictable weather. The weather, or rather an cover sheets papers outpour of rain Marco had not foreseen, reinforces his position as a social outcast and business networking, finally ends his frontier experience in Central Park.
After being soaked by the rain, Marco's appearance starts to worsen. He cuts off his hair after drying it of the rainwater because he can no longer control its wild look. For A Good! Without the long hair the thinness of his face becomes recognizable: It accentuated my thinness to an appalling degree. My ears stuck out, my Adams apple bulged, my head seemed no bigger than a childs ( MP : 67). With his body diminishing, Marco physically disappears out of society. His exclusion is further marked by the smell of networking dissertation his clothing as it starts to thesis bibical dry: Unfortunately, once my clothes began to dry in earnest, they also began to smell. [. ] This had never happened before and networking, it shocked me to realize that such a noxious odor could be coming from constitution my person ( MP : 68). Marco eventually even has to leave a library because of this smell. In this context the library can be read as a representation of civilization's intellectual achievement, and thus, his expulsion from the library is symbolic of his expulsion from this spiritual side of networking society.
But even the 'safety valve' of his Urban Frontier is debate, not able to save Marco now. Unlike the original frontier of the American West, the Urban Frontier is only artificial and does not have the same regenerating forces that the real wilderness has. Consequently, the rebirth Marco expected upon first entering the park cannot really take place. Marco retreats into a cave that was formed naturally in business networking, Central Park. In his feverish delirium he transforms the Urban Frontier setting into an original historic frontier: His mental journey leads him to the historic frontier of Manhattan Island before it was corrupted by white civilization and society. It is a prelapsarian state, the same state the frontier of Blakelocks Moonlight is in, and one similar to cover the frontier Effing experiences (cf. Networking Dissertation! Klepper 1996: 293).
Marco is rescued right in healing, the middle of this prelapsarian vision, but he is not regenerated by his experiences at the Urban Frontier. It is only at dissertation the end of the novel when he reaches the Pacific Ocean that regeneration is possible for him. 4 Regeneration through Creativity. force at their frontier, thus it can be assumed that the different frontier settings have different regenerating powers. At the end of the novel, when Marco stands at the Pacific shore after he walked several hundred miles from Lake Powell to California, he comes to the conclusion: This is where I start, I said to myself, this is where my life begins ( MP : 306). Yet after his frontier experience in debate, Central Park, he still feels a need to purify myself, to repent for business dissertation all my excesses of hard binding self-involvement ( MP : 73) and soon begins to resemble the person I had once been ( MP : 82). An important question one needs to ask in order to understand Moon Palace and its representations of the frontier is dissertation, why there is a difference in the regenerating forces of the for research frontier settings. After being left behind in the desert of Uthah by networking Scoresby, Effing's only bond to civilization and hard binding, society is his companion Byrne, who lies dying. He is networking dissertation, convinced that he cannot return to civilization without Byrne. And so he clings to nursing him as his only connection to the world: Once Byrne was gone, there would be nothing to think about thesis statement anymore, and I was afraid of networking that emptiness, it scared me half to death ( MP : 161). And indeed, after Byrnes death Effing's former self, Julian Barber, was obliterated and simply canceled himself out ( MP : 165).
This scene is statement, a key passage in networking dissertation, the novel, it is the first instance in which a character goes through a complete transformation. This is marked in the narrative style by Marco taking over the role of the narrator again. Effing's story is now told from Marco's perspective in sources constitution essay, the third person, after the first part had been narrated in business networking dissertation, first person from Effing's perspective. With Byrnes death and in his struggles after it, Effing loses everything, not only his last bond to civilization and society but also all his belongings. He breaks up his easel to bandage Byrnes broken arm and leg, his horse dies and he gradually uses all his food supplies. Only when he is prepared to really die, not only in his identity as Julian Barber, but physically and totally, does he find the hermits cave. It is stocked with ample supplies and secures his survival. Here the regeneration process slowly sets in, he feels reborn: Thus, only in the desert of the frontier, where he loses all connections to his old self and to civilization as such, a rebirth - or rather regeneration - is made possible. This regeneration however only truly sets in a little later when he starts to paint again.
After a few random sketches in a notebook he experiences a creative outburst, using up all his painting supplies and painting on essay, every surface he finds after there are no more canvases left. It is in this creative act that he is finally regenerated: It was an extraordinary reprieve, he said, and for the next three weeks he felt as though he had been reborn ( MP : 171). In this creative act Effing, who already has abandoned all his ties to networking civilization, also rids himself of artistic conventions and paints for the mere sake of creativity: An important aspect for him also is the fact that no one would ever see his paintings. His creative act thus is not an attempt to gain material or social advantages; it is uncorrupted by for a essay any conventional social standards. Thus in Moon Palace, I would argue, there are several prerequisites for the regeneration process. These are effectively only fulfilled in the description of the frontier of the American West, which all protagonists encounter at one point in the novel. Before the regeneration sets in, the characters lose all their ties to society, their families and to civilization as such and they also lose all their belongings and business networking dissertation, prospects.
In this instance of total independence and liberty a surge of thesis bibical creativity can be set free that then signifies the actual regenerating process. Marco is not able to experience this regeneration through a creative act in Central Park because within the urban setting this independence is not possible. Unlike Effing, who finds refuge and provisions in his cave, Marco always has to take care of practical concerns (looking for a place to sleep at night, taking care of my stomach) ( MP : 62). For these concerns Marco needs to use all his creative energy so he has no resources left that could support his regeneration: Occasionally, I jotted down some of these observations in my notebook, but for the most part I felt no inclination to networking write, not wanting to remove myself from my surroundings in any serious way ( MP : 63). Even after his experiences in the park he is not capable of any creativity. To earn money he translates a report from French into English.
Again he is not as independent as Effing is in Utah, his aim is to earn money in order to reimburse his friend Zimmer. Thus he only can regard the report as dead language ( MP : 91). Similarly, his job for Effing, as he writes the obituary, only seems like a creative act. He only reproduces Effing's words. In Central Park and in the city no rebirth or regeneration can take place because in the urban setting Marco is not free of social or financial restraints. Marc Chénetier thus talks about Effing's cave as womb, a fetal environment that enables his rebirth (Chénetier 1996: 61).
On the thesis bibical healing other hand Dennis Barone calls Marco's apartment, which at networking dissertation first sight seems to resemble Effing's cave so much, a tomb (Barone 1995: 17). The absolute lack of productivity in the urban setting is also symbolized by sources constitution Kittys abortion. The love between Marco and Kitty remains unproductive (cf. MP : 279ff). In contrast, Effing fathers a child the night before he takes to business the frontier (cf. MP : 152). Dissertation Binding Manchester! Thus Steven Weisenburger notes that as long as Marco is in the city the genealogy that is steadily unfolding in the novel cannot be continued (cf. Weissenburger 1994: 73).
The reason for the impossibility for independence and for the unproductivity of the city is the influence of money and capitalism. In the urban setting one always depends on money to networking survive. So the creative act always is corrupted by capitalism because all creativity needs to be used to earn a living. The reign of capitalism is strong enough to drain the wilderness landscape of Central Park of its regenerating power. This reading of the Urban Frontier setting goes along with Auster's assessment of capitalism and money-making in his autobiographical account Hand to Mouth : The negative influence of money on the creative act can be observed in Moon Palace whenever money is gained or lost. Effing's creative excess ends as soon as he finds the money of the Gresham brothers: As Effing put it to me, it was precisely at writing debate essay that moment that everything changed for him again, that his life suddenly veered in a new direction ( MP : 181). He returns to civilization and never paints again. Networking Dissertation! Or as Carsten Springer notes: With his creation of a new identity as Thomas Effing, this character closes his personal frontier and domesticates his moral wilderness (Springer 2001: 143). However, his imagination and creativity return when he and Marco symbolically give the money back to society by handing out fifty-dollar bills to total strangers.
They meet a man with a broken umbrella who pretends that it is raining and that his umbrella protects him from the rain. Effing not only plays along, he also takes out this umbrella some days later in a real rainstorm, pretending that he is sheltered from the rain. This is the last night of their task to return the money he has taken from the Gresham brothers and the incident with the umbrella shows clearly, how Effing's imagination and creativity have returned (cf. MP : 212f). Similarly, Marco's regeneration only sources of uk constitution, takes place after he loses all his belongings in the West. After Barber dies, Marco inherits the money Barber himself has inherited from Effing. He has the money in the trunk of his car, which is stolen at networking dissertation Lake Powell when Marco realizes that his quest for Effing's cave has failed. He then walks all the way to the Pacific coast, where he finally feels regenerated.
Again this regeneration is only possible in binding manchester, the American West, after Marco lost all his ties to society, his father, his grandfather and his lover, and business dissertation, after he lost all his money. The creative act that enables the regeneration, then, is of course the narrative of Moon Palace itself, which is a first-person account of Marco's life. Marco's regeneration at the shore of the Pacific makes Moon Palace one of the very few novels by Paul Auster that have a positive ending: In Moon Palace, unlike the prior novels where words fall apart, Fogg eventually is able to put them back together again (Barone 1995: 18f; original emphasis). 4. His father, Solomon Barber, cannot be regenerated, even in the Midwest.
He has still his family ties, as personified by Marco, his son. Significantly his worst failure or rather fall takes place at the grave of his former lover and Marco's mother, at the precise moment when he reveals to Marco their family relation. Hard! Also, when he falls, Barber still holds on to the money he inherited from Effing and so he is not free of the business dissertation material constraints, either. Already in an earlier episode Auster shows how money and capitalism oppose the idea of the regenerating frontier. It has been shown that Marco's reading of his uncles books resembles the exploration of an imaginary landscape or frontier. However, when Marco tries to sell these books, they are just treated like any other commodity, without any consideration for the emotional and symbolic meaning they have for Marco: Like the Course of Empire , Auster's Moon Palace seems to suggest a cyclic understanding of history.
If the characters manage to return to cover sheets papers a prelapsarian state, to Effing's mythic frontier, they can undo the damage civilization has imposed on their person. This is just the attempt made by business networking many of Auster's other characters, by Stillman Sr. and by Daniel Quinn in City of Glass and by Hans Sachs in writing debate essay, Leviathan for example. As Martin Klepper puts it, many times this search for the prelapsarian state is a linguistic search, a search for a prelapsarian speech (cf. Klepper 1996: 252). Dissertation! Stillman, Quinn and Sachs fail in their quest, in Moon Palace , however, some of the characters actually succeed.
Addy, Andrew (1996): Narrating the Self: Story-Telling as Personal Myth-Making in Paul Austers Moon Palace . Thesis Bibical Healing! in: Q.W.E.R.T.Y.: Arts, Litteratures ans Civilisations du Monde Anglophone . 6, 153–161. Auster, Paul (1997): Hand to business networking Mouth: A Chronicle of Early Failure . Writing! New York: Henry Holt. Auster, Paul (1989): Moon Palace . New York: Penguin. Barone, Dennis (1995): Introduction: Paul Auster and the Postmodern American Novel. In: Dennis Barone (Hg.): Beyond the dissertation Red Notebook: Essays on Paul Auster . Philadelphia, Penn: U. of Pennsylvania Press, 1–26. Bawer, Bruce (1989): Doubles and More Doubles. Thesis! In: The New Criterion 7, 67–74. Belton, John (1994): American Cinema / American Culture . New York et al.: McGraw. Berkemeier, Christian (2002): Schlafes Bruder: Assoziationen zu Text, Tod und (T)raum in Austers Moon Palace , Timbuktu und Lulu on business dissertation, the Bridge . In: Lienkamp, Wolfgang et al. (Hg.): As Strange as the World : Annäherungen an das Werk des Erzählers und Filmemachers Paul Auster . Münster: LIT.
Birkerts, Sven (1992): American Energies: Essays on papers, Fiction . New York: William Morrow. Chénetier, Marc (1996): Paul Auster as the Wizard of networking Odds: Moon Palace. Paris: Didier Érudition. Dow, William (1996): Never Being This Far From Home: Paul Auster and Picturing Moonlight Spaces. Q.W.E.R.T.Y. : Arts, Litteratures ans Civilisations du Monde Anglophone . Debate Essay! 6, 193–198. Flexner, James Thomas (1962): That Wilder Image: The Paintings of Americas Native Schhool from Thomas Cole to Winslow Homer . Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown and Co. Herzogenrath, Bernd (1999): An Art of Desire: Reading Paul Auster . Postmodern Studies 21.
Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Ickstadt, Heinz (1998): Der amerikanische Roman im 20. Jahrhundert. Transformation des Mimetischen. Business Networking Dissertation! Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Klepper, Martin (1996): Pynchon, Auster, DeLillo: Die amerikanische Postmoderne zwischen Spiel und Rekonstruktion . Frankfurt, New York: Campus Verlag. Slotkin, Richard (1973): Regeneration through Violence. The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860 . Middletown, Conn.: Weslyan UP. Springer, Carsten (2001): Crises: The Works of Paul Auster . American Culture 1. New York et al.: Peter Lang.
Wade, Richard C. (1967, 1959): The Urban Frontier. The Rise of Western Cities, 1790-1830 . Harvard Historical Monographs 41. Thesis Statement! Cambridge: Harvard UP. Weisenburger, Steven (1994): Inside Moon Palace . Business Dissertation! In: Barone, Dennis (Hg.): The Review of thesis bibical Contemporary Fiction 14.1, 70–79. Yaeger, Bert D (1996): The Hudson River School: American Landscape Artists. New York: Todtri. 2 These legendary qualities of Effings accounts are further shown by his paraplegia. When Effing is introduced in business, one of Austers manuscripts of an earlier draft of the novel, Auster noted on the margin: legend = leg|end.
Farfetched as this connection might otherwise seem, it should be taken seriously as Auster himself points it out in his manuscript. These manuscripts can be consulted in the Berg-Collection of the thesis New York Public Library. 3 This quotation can also be read as a poetological statement Auster makes on the structure of his novel. Business Networking! He uses elements of the picaresque novel, but changes them and thus reinvents the genre (cf. Herzogenrath 120).
He is unteaching himself the rules he has learned to find a new form. Carsten Springer however rightly argues that the widespread assumption that all of Austers work have to be seen as deconstruction of a genre [. Dissertation Hard Manchester! ] fails to networking dissertation account for the characteristics of the texts written before and after the [ New York] Trilogy . (Springer 8; original emphasis) 4 Barone includes in this statement Auster's novel In the Country of Last Things , which had been published one year before Moon Palace . The novel, however, has an criteria for a analysis essay open ending and I would argue that there are certain indications that suggest the same dichotomy between an unproductive urban frontier and a regenerating natural frontier. The novel ends the night before the networking protagonist, Anna Blume, leaves the for research papers city westwards and the book is business dissertation, written in first person, suggesting a similar regeneration through creativity for Anna Blume.
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Understanding Book Layouts and Page Margins. When authors decide to networking, format their own books, they don’t always make the best choices. Debate Essay! It’s important to dissertation, stay within formatting conventions because printed books have existed for a long while. Longstanding habits of readers and accepted trade practices have come to dictate that we follow these formatting guides unless we have a pretty good reason not to. I talk to a lot of authors and look at hundreds of self-published books, and the ones that are problematic jump out at me. Thesis Statement Model! For instance, last year I was judging the dissertation annual book competition for a local publishing group, and I found formatting and book construction mistakes in many of the books produced by amateur publishers. Today, I want to look at one of the cover sheets papers most common of these mistakes, and show you easy ways to avoid it. Dissertation! This has to debate essay, do with page margins—how to do them right and business networking how not to dissertation hard, do them wrong. Small Things Make a Big Difference.
I’m not going to deny that book designers are detail freaks. Networking Dissertation! Who else would want the job? There are so many tiny details and essay decisions that go into business networking dissertation formatting a book that you pretty much have to be someone who enjoys working on that scale to appreciate book design. Some of these changes—ones that seem to make a significant difference to me—may involve differences of a hundredth of an inch one way or the statement model other. When you’re dealing with typography, you get used to the effect of these small changes. And that’s true for the decisions you make about networking dissertation, margins, too. So in the rest of the article, I’m going to dissertation, talk about small measurements. You’ll need to be able to measure the business networking dissertation elements of your page accurately in order to implement these suggestions. Let’s talk for a moment about what we expect from debate, our page margins. After all, they have a job to do too, even though they are blank areas on the page, something that designers refer to as “negative space.” Here are some of the business networking dissertation jobs margins have to debate essay, do:
provide room for the reader to hold the book comfortably show the entire type block area easily, without “disappearing” into the gutter (see below) give a feeling of openness, making the book inviting to read providing space for running heads (or running feet), page numbers or other navigation aids. Once you’ve decided what your book size will be, the next order of business dissertation business is to position the writing text block on the page. This refers to the tall column of type that makes up your text pages. But when your pages are going to end up bound into a book, vertical centering isn’t the best way to go. That’s because the business dissertation pages of a book, when you’re reading it, aren’t flat the way a single piece of paper is. They curve in toward the binding, don’t they? Because your printed book isn’t going to open completely flat, we always leave more room on the inside margins of our pages. We even have a language for referring to this inside margin, whether it’s the thesis statement model left side of the networking page (right-hand, or odd-numbered pages) or the right (left-hand, even-numbered pages). That inside margin is referred to debate essay, as the “gutter” margin. Going Around the Page with Margins. Okay, so we know the gutter (or inside) margin on bound books has to be larger than the business outer margin, but how much?
Let’s take a 6? x 9? book as an example. For a typical novel or narrative nonfiction book of about 200 pages, I would start off with an outside margin of .75? and a gutter margin of .875?. Remember that because our margins aren’t even, our pages are asymmetrical, although if you look at your book as a series of two-page spreads, the whole layout is thesis healing, neatly and symmetrically arranged around the networking spine at the center. One of the common mistakes in thesis self-formatted books is making these margins too small. And it seems to me, just from the books I’ve been seeing, that these margins are getting smaller all the time, and networking dissertation I have a suspicion why that would be. As you know, print on demand vendors like CreateSpace, Lightning Source, and others base their printing fees on the number of pages in your book. I think this has led some authors to try to find ways to get more words on each page to save printing costs. Hey, I realize that when you’re publishing your own books you have to watch your budget and your profitability carefully, but this is not the way to thesis statement model, do it . You’ll end up with a book that’s hard to hold and business not that pleasant to read, and that’s not a good outcome.
Shrinking your margins is a crude way to jam more words on a page. Instead, try experimenting with different fonts. It’s surprising how much variation you can find in fonts of the same size. For instance, square-serif fonts like Memphis take up a lot more space than a typical old-style font like Garamond. The top and dissertation hard bottom margins of your page will vary depending on whether you use running heads or running feet or neither, and dissertation where you put your page numbers (“folios” in book lingo). For a book design with running heads and folios that are centered at the bottom of the page on debate essay, a 6? x 9? book, try .75? bottom margin and .5? top margins for a start.
In any case, for a 6? x 9? trade book, you’re going to want to end up with 30 to business, 35 lines per page in most cases. And the margins I’ve suggested here will give you a line that’s about 28 picas long. Combined with inter-line spacing (“leading”) that’s approximately 130% of the type size (i.e. 11 point type with about hard, 14 points leading), you will have pages that are easy to business, read and bibical look the way they’re supposed to. CreateSpace Margin Recommendations. You can find the recommendations from CreateSpace on how to set your margins on the page How to Create an networking Interior PDF of Your Book. Keep in statement model mind that the networking dissertation “minimum” margin of .25? that CreateSpace refers to is too small for most books. This margin measurement is meant to create a “safe area” so that nothing on thesis bibical healing, your page is in danger of getting trimmed off.
With these recommendations and a firm understanding of how margins work as part of your page layout, you’ll be ready to create good-looking books. Photo: bigstockphoto.com. Originally published at CreateSpace as “Life on the Margins.” Hi Joel and thank you so much for your articles. I recently purchased one of your templates, Sparks, for a novel. It’s very user friendly and thank you for that, but I have a question on the font. I noticed that it uses Times New Roman but I had read a number of articles recommending against business dissertation, that. In your response on August 14 to a question above, you wrote, “… The other thing that surprised me was that all the (templates) I found were either generic, barely-designed Times Roman-based layouts that looked terrible…” I wrote to your customer service asking about the choice of fonts and they wrote back, “Spark utilizes Times New Roman because it’s a 2 way template.
This assures that you don’t have to sources, format the manuscript twice. Times New Roman is business networking dissertation, am eBook safe font.” Could you please comment? Createspace is very non-rigorous when it comes to talking about for a, gutters. Sometimes they seem to be referring to business, the combined amount of gutter + inside margin. Sometimes, not. And your discussion here seems to also mix the two. Their own template for book size 8 x 10 gives a gutter of .13, but when you upload their internal auto-review says the gutter should be at least .5, but gives no mention of inside margin. Someone needs to spell out the sheets relationship of gutter to inside margin, not mixing the terms, and giving examples, in a chart, with numbers in business dissertation it. Joel Friedlander says. In practice, there is no difference between the “gutter margin” and sources essay the “inside margin” since both refer to exactly the networking dissertation same thing.
Also keep in mind that prepress imaging at the printer or POD vendor is going to also account for criteria “creep” in the thickness of the book by business dissertation, moving page images away from the spine to thesis, account for the thickness of folded signatures. In any event, I would not use an dissertation inside margin less than .5? and prefer 5 picas, or .83?. Hope that helps. Some light is finally beginning to filter down to me on this subject. I think you are saying that you have found that, ideally, there should be a minimum of .83 inches between the manchester edge of the paper and dissertation the start of the text on essay, the bound-side of the business page. And that further, you can distribute this amount any way you like between the gutter allowance and the inside margin measurement as long as it totals .83 inches.
I am so grateful you answered! Thank you for this article. I wonder if you can help with a specific question regarding settings using InDesign? I have just received a proof copy from CreateSpace for a coloring book and some of the drawings are not as crisp as I would like, I think this has happened because of the way I was creating the interior PDF. I had 300dpi images in the original Pages/Mac document, but the PDF exported at best quality from Pages (Mac’s document software) was not good enough for print. So, I thought I would try InDesign which hopefully should be better. The book is dissertation binding, 8.5? x 8.5?, 120 pages Black White, the networking dissertation pages are predominantly images for coloring in, but there are also several text pages. When I created the model document in Pages, I had 0.5? margins set for Top/Bottom/Outside and 0.62? for Inside. Looking at networking dissertation, the proof copy, I think an thesis increase of business networking 0.125? all round would not go amiss – 0.625? and 0.75?. However, I’m not certain exactly how to set the writing document to do this.
Is the business networking dissertation following correct when I create a New Document? Number of Pages: 120. Start Page No.: 1. Facing Pages: Selected. Primary Text Frame: Deselected. Page Size: 8.5? x 8.5? (Portrait) Columns Number: 1.
Bleed: all 0 as there are no bleed images. Appreciate any help you are able to give #128578; Lets not forget the Canons of page design that are old as Gutenberg and his bible and the design principles that been around for hundred of years. Joel Friedlander says. Hans, good to know those canons, but they don’t produce modern-looking pages for today’s books, in my experience. Hello Joel, thank you in InDesign I have: Gutter, Top. Good! Bottom, Outside and Inside. What should the measurements of inside be equal to?
Outside. Joel Friedlander says. Livingstone, in business dissertation InDesign’s Layout/Margins and Columns dialog, you only have to deal with top, bottom, inside, and outside margins. The “inside” margins on hard binding manchester, a document set up with facing pages is the “gutter” margin. Pravesh Kumar says. Can I put a image on both side pages upto crop or bleed mark in children book. Will Lightning Source pass this or not?
Joel, thanks a ton for all of your info. You make this whole process a little easier. Have you had lots of questions over the years about Word’s mirrored margins? I’ve done a fair amount of research, and am putting together a self-published collection. Networking Dissertation! I have the book size, and I know about the binding, etc. that goes with margins. Writing! But . Networking Dissertation! . . on Word 2011, when you choose the margins, there is INSIDE, OUTSIDE, LEFT, RIGHT, and cover sheets also GUTTER. “Inside” always means the gutter, right? The inside part of the book, correct? Why do they add this extra option in there? I’m also confused as to business dissertation, why there are two different margin setups, and both can be different, even after you type everything in. On “Page Setup” there is a margin area, and on the regular Word document page there is a margin area.
Do you recommend one go-to kind of document software when self-publishing a book of fiction? Sorry, all of this is thesis bibical, probably in your self-publishing kit, which I just noticed, and that I’ll probably wind up buying. Joel Friedlander says. John, we’ve solved the business networking problems with book layout in Word with our predesigned templates, check them out here where you can also download our Formatting Guide: http://www.bookdesigntemplates.com. If you are doing a layout for a 6?9 hardcover and model would also like to do a layout for a 6?9 softcover, would you need to do another layout, despite the fact the networking dissertation book is the thesis exact same dimension size? Joel Friedlander says. Bennett, there should be no difference in business the file. In fact, the thesis statement most common way to do this is to print all the interiors (book blocks) and then bind some in business dissertation paper, and the remainder as casebound books. So the interior is identical in both bindings. Thanks for your article, its helpful and i wish to read it more! so i want to ask you just i’m processing for writing book which i title “Fanka Guusha’ it means the writing art of success. i completed it all but the problem is publication and cover page of the book because, i live in Somalia where there is no basic facilities at all.
Sir what can you help me? what advice did you give in order to complete my book? any response, Please let me know by send me email. I realize this is an older post, but I wanted to point out something. Networking Dissertation! My inside margin is writing essay, exactly the same as my outside margin for this reason: I have physically measured all the traditionally published paperbacks in my book’s genre that I could get my hands on, and only one out of dozens had a larger gutter than the outside margin. Business Networking Dissertation! It may be better to have different margins on sheets for research papers, different types of books, but for my genre, equal margins seems to be the norm. I think the extra bit of the inside margin might be the ‘out of sight’ area for trapping the pages in place. Joel Friedlander says. Exactly right. Business! And unless you physically disassemble a book, it’s almost impossible to accurately measure the gutter (inside, binding) margin. I recommend a larger gutter margin partially because most people reading this blog use print on demand, and the spines on POD books seem to me to be stiffer and less pliable than offset printed books.
I have a narrative non-fiction at 60k words and would like to use a 6 by 9in layout however the last 50 pages transition into diagrams for a scientific theory based off of the criteria for a essay narrative. Business! Because of criteria for a good analysis essay this, 7 by 10in would hold the sketches and diagrams better. So my dilemma is that I am going to go with 7 by networking, 10in but can’t quite find the right margins for the first 200 pages that contain the narrative non-fiction. Im either with margins that are small but have 400 words per page or margins to big giving the feel of to much negative space. I am stubborn so I want to figure this out.
Thanks for you help, I’m a bit confused about something. The interior pages are obviously smaller than the exterior hardcover. How do I figure out what size I should make my page (Open Office)? Or do I use the exterior size, e.g. 5.5 x 8.5 or 6 x 9, and add extra margin for dissertation binding the printer to networking, trim to size before binding? If I need to custom size my page format, could you provide the dimensions for both book sizes referenced, or direct me to where that info can be found? Confused but determined indie,
You say “Because your printed book isn’t going to open completely flat, we always leave more room on the inside margins of our pages.” This is model, true, but I think it’s important that you emphasise that each printer has different requirements . Business Dissertation! In the case of Lulu, they require that the left and right margins must be equal (likewise top and bottom) so following that having a larger inner margin would result in the book being rejected–a potentially costly waste of time. Alex, it’s unfortunate that Lulu puts those kinds of restrictions on the books you print there, and it’s another reason why I don’t use their services. But thanks for of uk pointing it out, that’s very useful. I don’t think Lulu is the best PoD printer out there either… unfortunately, CreateSpace’s UK prices suck. Which is quite amazing, since the UK book market is one of the most competitive in the world. Hopefully Lulu will get some more competition soon. Hi. Help me please, I need create a novels book 5.5 x 8.5 which size margin I need. Right now I have top, bottom 0.5 and inside outside 0.75. Here, you write here “…we know the gutter (or inside) margin on bound books has to be larger than the outer margin… I would start off with an outside margin of .75? and a gutter margin of .875.?
But on 9 Mar 2010 (Book Page Layout for networking a Long Narrative) you wrote, “You want to keep the inside margin—the one in the gutter or at the binding—smaller than the for a good analysis outside, because when the book is held open this will essentially double in size, combining the inside margins of networking dissertation both pages in a space in criteria good the middle of the business book.” Please clarify. When should the gutter margin be larger, and when should it be smaller? That’s a good catch, and one of the difficulties of writing on the same subject over a period of years. And keep in mind that some of these guidelines change depending on the kind of printing you’re doing. What I’ve found recently is that the books from dissertation binding, print on networking, demand suppliers have “tighter” spines than books from offset printers. Consequently, I always make the gutter margins on books intended for print on constitution, demand larger to make sure the type doesn’t disappear into the gutter, making it difficult to read. On books intended for offset it depends on the number of networking dissertation pages (longer books need more gutter margins) and writing debate kind of binding (perfect binding creates tighter spines than notch or Smythe-sewn bindings). I hope that gives you some guidance. I will go back and edit the article you pointed out, and my thanks for that.
Great article. Business Networking Dissertation! Do you have any recommendations if you are doing a blank book with lined journal pages or plan to have lined note pages as part of the book? I’ve looked at writing debate essay, your templates and have a couple but didn’t see any that address this type of book. I’m trying to use a Createspace template but I am wondering if I need to change the margins, the gutters in dissertation particular. Vikk, you may need to change the margins to make sure users can actually write comfortably in the book. My suggestion is to set the book up and cover papers have a sample printed at CreateSpace so you can examine it. That will quickly tell you whether you need any adjustments or not. Wow, thank you again for such a quick reply. You nailed my concerns. Business Dissertation! I’m using the formatted template for the 5.5 x 8.5 size. Left gutters is 0.14? with all the other margins at .76? except for the outside which is at 0.6?.
I’ll stop searching as I’ve already used up several hours and go ahead and sheets for research finish making my adjustments and then order the sample as you suggest. Thank you, again. Confused. You write here about business networking dissertation, making the gutter margin wider as it slopes in, but on 9 Mar 2010 (Book Page Layout for a Long Narrative) you wrote, “You want to keep the inside margin—the one in the gutter or at the binding—smaller than the for a essay outside, because when the book is held open this will essentially double in size, combining the business inside margins of both pages in a space in the middle of the book.” Please clarify. I think part of the confusion is that a key part of information was omitted. That part being, that a margin design should account for recto and verso pages being viewed together when a book is cover sheets for research, opened.
Only in this context inner and outer margins should be discussed and business dissertation designed. The usual design goal is to have margins set so, that when book is opened both text columns appear pleasing to the eye, which is in itself a very imprecise spec. Cover Papers! A good initial approach is to have left and right outer margins equal and have a sum of inner margins (when viewed in an opened book, so account for business dissertation gutter) equal in width to an outer margin. Try that as a starting point and modify from there. Thanks so much for the article! Very informative #128578; Just wanted to ask a question regarding LS printing. This is cover papers, my first time self-publishing and I’ve chosen to go with LS, your article on CreateSpace vs LS was an excellent read (so thank you for that as well! :D) I’ve read articles and heard from people that LS can be very strict when it comes to accepting book files. I have not yet submitted mine in networking as I’m very meticulously trying to of uk constitution, ensure I do everything correctly the networking first time.
I also read your article on cleaning up book files for essay help on that #128578; Your blog has become my #1 place for business networking dissertation info now!! I would just like to know exactly what I’m supposed to do once the thesis statement book is ready to send for networking dissertation printing. I know I have to convert it to pdf, but am not entirely sure how to do so and what steps to take. I’m also not sure whether I’m supposed to adjust the margins according to healing, the page size in mind before sending to dissertation, them or whether they will take care of for research papers this. Any help will be greatly appreciated. I really appreciate your informative posts! I was surprised to dissertation, find that the criteria gutter margins I’ve measured on middle grade novels are smaller than what you recommend, but maybe that’s because they have fewer pages and so it’s easier to business dissertation, open the essay book wider. E.S. Business Networking! it’s also very difficult to accurately measure the gutter margin unless you break the spine or disassemble the book. But a little more room there will help your readers. But thinner books or more flexible bindings can also help. You know, I thought I was getting around that problem by dissertation, adding the measurment of outer margin to the width of the type column, and then subtracting the sum from the width of the business networking paperback, to come up with the gutter margin.
However, while reading your answer it occurred to me that the difference in measurement is so small it could be measurement error (I found that many of bibical my measurements varied per page.) So – I’m going to go with the larger measurement to be safe. Thanks! Thank you for all that feedback and business dissertation the great article (as always). Sources Of Uk Essay! I’m reformatting all my books as I write this–in InDesign, using Joel’s font combo recommendations too. Networking Dissertation! Took out the writing debate art for now–will do special printings once I have the “right” art created as I always wanted. For now, the layout and fonts are my art =) Great post, very informative on book layouts. This is networking, just what I needed, Thanks!
You’re so right when you talk about book designers being detail-oriented with a strong understanding of statement typography. I see so many Indie books with tiiiiny little margins, orphans, and widows. All it would take is contacting a designer who understands print books and a little bit of an investment. Well done. Shared on business, my blog!
WRITE ON! Alan Drabke says. Just my opinion, but I think Lulu paperback book templates are a lot more attractive than Create Space templates. Don’t pick a printer just because of its templates. You can use Lulu or CreateSpace without any templates, or with templates provided by others, including Joel. Keep in binding mind that Lulu’s printing prices are very expensive, making it hard to business networking dissertation, be competitive and good essay make a profit. When we were developing the templates for our BookDesignTemplates site I downloaded every single book template I could find online. Networking! For one thing, there aren’t very many of them (hey, it’s not that easy to do in sources constitution essay Word, anyway). The other thing that surprised me was that all the ones I found were either generic, barely-designed, Times Roman-based layouts that looked terrible, or they were simple frames without anything in them at all. Check out the networking dissertation ones at the link above, I think you’ll be surprised. One of my basic rules of thumb is that the a book’s outside margins must be large enough to comfortably fit human thumbs without covering up any text.
It’s really annoying to have to constantly re-position pages while reading through a book. Paper is one of the least expensive parts of publishing, and if a book requires 10 or 20 more pages to be more attractive and more comfortable to read, it’s a worthwhile investment. While paper is of uk essay, not expensive, it’s not free, so keep printing costs in mind while evaluating suppliers. Each page from Lightning Source or CreateSpace costs the same, but other companies have wacky price schedules. With Infinity Publishing, a reader pays a buck more for dissertation a book with 129 pages than one with 128 pages and the author pays 54 cents more. Page number 129 is printed on a very expensive piece of paper. Xlibris also has an inflated and weird “delta” between page ranges. A 107-page paperback book will sell for $15.99 and the hardcover will sell for dissertation hard binding $24.99.
If you add just one page more, the dissertation price goes up $4 or $5. The difference in the manufacturing cost is tiny, and can’t possibly justify the difference in criteria cover price. The price for a paperback with 398 pages is $19.99 (just like the 108-page book), but, at 400 pages the retail price jumps four bucks to $23.99, and that price holds all the dissertation way to 800 pages. Xlibris gives away 400 pages for “free,” but charges four or five bucks for one page! Xlibris books are printed by Lightning Source, so the price per additional page is for a good essay, $.013 (or maybe even less if they get a discount).
Sadly, both amateur and professional publishers seem to strive to save pages, dollars (and maybe also trees) and the result is networking, often awful. The sample books that Infinity Publishing and DiggyPOD distribute to essay, impress potential author/customers have barely enough margin room for a child’s pinky — let alone an adult’s thumb. Some magazines, including Bloomberg Business Week , are guilty of the same sin. Amateur book formatters should spend some time walking around an art gallery or even viewing the websites of companies that sell art prints. For example, Pablo Picasso created “Petite Fleurs” with ample white space or air around the image, and even the hands and forearms are mere outlines around white space to business networking dissertation, further emphasize the writing essay color of the flowers held in the hands. If Picasso and the framer removed the air supply, the same-size print pushes me away. Business Networking! The print with ample air draws me in.
Eyes—like noses—need air. Michael N. Cover! Marcus. Great Post Michael. It’s interesting how print on demand has changed the way we think about book production. Dissertation! Historically, when books were all printed offset, paper was the most costly part of any printing project. More than the labor or the binding. Using the minimum amount of paper for any specific project was so important that we would always try to thesis statement, get as large a first run as possible so we could order our paper by the “carload.” This would allow our production staff to create a sheet size that was exactly right for the book and the equipment it would print on, and we would have the business networking dissertation paper custom made to that exact size, simply to writing debate, eliminate any waste whatsoever. Of course, this had nothing to networking, do with the design of the sources of uk essay book, which is what’s under discussion in this article, and Michael’s points about margin size are good ones.
Daphne Caudle says. Dear Mr. Friedlander: I have been reading your good posts with suggestions and ideas on networking, formatting, publishing and sources constitution related information. I have written some poetry and I am in the process of networking writing my first novel. Essay! I love to write! I am a paralegal of 12 years by profession with hopes of business networking dissertation passing my TExES exam in the very near future to teach special education inasmuch as I have already earned my Bachelor of Arts in Child and Family Studies with a minor in special populations. I am not yet attempting to make writing my full-time career. I simply love to write. While I am writing, my brain takes a vacation from the dissertation binding manchester every day stressors of life and I can think creatively without distraction.
Do you have a publisher of preference? Thank you for all of your postings which are useful to individuals such as myself. Daphne, if you’re looking for a print on demand vendor, most of the indie authors I know use CreateSpace, Lightning Source, or Ingram Spark. If you are seeking a traditional publisher, I don’t think I can be of much help. […] recognize that a bound book has specific layout requirements. You want to start […] […] gutter (this is especially important for longer books, which have deeper gutters). There are some detailed resources online if you want to explore this topic in […] […] Here is business networking, a link to an article that talks about page margins — just one of the considerations of cover sheets papers page layout. […] […] Understanding Book Layouts and Page Margins – Joel, thanks a ton for all of your info. Networking Dissertation! You make this whole process a little easier.
Have you had lots of questions over the years about sheets for research, Word’s mirrored margins? […] […] Understanding Book Layouts and Page Margins describes typical margins for a standard 6 inch by 9 inch trade paperback, including CreateSpace book layout specifications […] […] Understanding Book Layouts and Page Margins describes typical margins for networking a standard 6 inch by 9 inch trade paperback, including CreateSpace book layout specifications […] […] Friedlander at of uk essay, The Book Designer recommends 30-35 lines per business networking page in a 6?9 trade paperback. As you play with the trim, font, […] […] Understanding Book Layouts and Page Margins […] […] Understanding Book Layouts and Page Margins […] […] Joel Friedlander: Understanding Book Layouts And Page Margins […]
[…] Understanding Book Layouts and Page Margins […] Writers change the world one reader at a time. But you can't change the world with a book that's still on your hard drive or in a box under your bed. This blog exists to help you get that book into writing debate people's hands. Copyright Marin Bookworks #x000A9; 2017.
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350 400 Word Essay On No Homework Excuse Essays and Research Papers. Business Networking Dissertation. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of technologies to enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and sources of uk, limitations of using technology in learning and teaching. ( 400 words minimum) Technology has moved on networking, in leaps and of uk essay, bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for business dissertation some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the manchester internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. ? Ambiguous Words Essay Question: “Southerners maintained that secession was the ultimate expression of democracy, while . Lincoln claimed it was rejection of democracy. How did they explain and justify their principles.” On December 20, 1860, the Confederacy was born when South Carolina seceded from the federal Union.
The Union and the Confederacy severely clashed in their views on business, the Constitution; the South felt that individual states should have the right to nullify. For A Good Analysis Essay. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , North Carolina 979 Words | 8 Pages. Dissertation. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks – 100 1. Prose – 20 marks 2. Verse – 20 marks Textual Grammar – 16 marks 1. Good Analysis. Essay writing . [ 350 - 400 words ] – 12 marks 2. Rhetoric – 12 marks 3. Project – 20 marks Prose and Poetry – (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. Networking. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Through the Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat – William Wordsworth 2. Cover. You who never arrived – Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. 1000 Word Essay On The Importance Of Accountability In The Army. Business Networking. 1000 word essay on the importance of accountability in the army Free Essays on 5000 Word . Essay On Accountability Responsibility for students. Accountability in the army is dissertation hard binding manchester important because soldiers as well as equipment, ammunition, food, water and business networking dissertation, other various 1000 Words on Accountability.
Free Essays on Military Gear Accountability for students. 310 Words / 1 Pages. Gear Accountability. GEAR ACCOUNTABILITY There are many important reasons to be checking your gear constantly to keep proper issued. Accountability , Army , Essay 1140 Words | 4 Pages. Excuses , Excuses Even though some excuses for turning in work late as seen in “The Dog Ate My Disk, and Other . Tales of Woe” by Carolyn Foster Segal, some excuses given are legitimate for turning in statement model late work. Some unforeseeable events, such as traffic accidents, death in the family, weather that causes an evacuation, and a fire are just a few are all events that students can not control, which result in turning in late work. It is Monday morning, students are on their way to the first class period. Education , Homework help service , School 931 Words | 3 Pages. Business Networking. highlighted the lack of adaptability of the firm. Sources Of Uk Constitution Essay. Furthermore, the external environment in business networking United Kingdom is criteria good essay really bleak and business networking dissertation, businesses are slowing or . falling down.This environment can explain a part of the economic problems of Westmid, but that doesn’t excuse all of the bad issues of this company.
The external environment, the cover sheets for research financial crisis, the increasing of the competition, raise an other important obstacle for the future of the firm Egan without Westmid. Indeed, if this important and loyal customer. Change , Economics , Finance 655 Words | 2 Pages. one needs to understand the origin of words . Networking Dissertation. Etymology, according to Yule(2006) is “the study of the origin and history of a . word ” (p.35). This process is used in the evolution of words today, the essay internet is the building block of this process. The internet is business dissertation a catalyst for a number of new words that have become normal in everyday language. This has raised some fundamental questions about the nature of such words being included in the dictionary. This essay will argue that although change is inevitable. English language , Etymology , French language 1231 Words | 4 Pages. Homework or Not?
That is the constitution (Research) Question. Dissertation. By: Alison DeNisco District Administration, March 2013 Woe unto the statement administrator who . ventures forth into the homework wars. Business Networking Dissertation. Scale it back, and parents will be at your door complaining about a lack of academic rigor. Dial it up, and you’ll get an good analysis essay earful from other parents about interference with after-school activities and family time. If you’re looking to bolster your particular position with research results, you’re in luck, because there. Education , High school , Homework 1672 Words | 5 Pages. in business dissertation a more accurate way.
WELL, that is how I feel about what I write. Since coming home for the summer, I’ve revisited old papers and essays . for further refinement and fine tweaking just because I think it’s fun (and because I’m a perfectionist, whoops). So some of the essays I post are more loved and tended to than others, but today I am posting the first essay I wrote for the Nonfiction Writing class I took this past spring at KU. It’s come a long way since then, and I’m certain I will pay it. Microsoft Word , Political correctness , Word 2077 Words | 6 Pages. Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is hard binding manchester one of the most frequently . used words in the play Othello. Throughout the play, the word is business networking dissertation used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in writing a single incident. “Heaven” is business networking used in the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def.
7a). Of Uk Essay. The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages. Final word count _______________ / 400 words minimum This writing sample fulfills the first writing assignment . in the course. Instructions: According to The Little Seagull Handbook, “A descriptive writing provides specific details to show what something looks like—and perhaps how it sounds, feels, smells, and tastes” (Bullock, Brody, and Weinberg 23). Descriptive arguments should make a “clear dominant impression” (Bullock, Brody, and Weinberg 367) and should prove a point. To the.
Essay , Greatest hits albums , Linguistics 795 Words | 4 Pages. the Usage of the business “N” Word When discussing the essay definition, effects, and the history behind the networking “N” word , it is sources essay interesting how . this word has managed to networking change over time from sheets for research papers having a descriptive meaning, to a negative connotation, and to a positive controversial meaning. That is why there are those who believe that the “N” word should and should not be used, and networking, there are those that believe that only some (or the accepted ones) should use it in order to criteria analysis essay avoid conflicts. This essay will go over some. Black people , Hip hop , Hip hop music 918 Words | 3 Pages. Exam Objective This exam evaluates the degree to networking which the student can successfully construct a four-paragraph expository essay . (introduction, two body paragraphs, and thesis model, conclusion), as well as revise and edit their essay using a rubric and pre-established classroom criteria. Business Networking. The student should present a perspective on American values using logically sound and grammatically correct paragraphs, basing their reasoning on of uk constitution, clearly stated themes and concrete, illustrative examples. The produced paragraphs.
2005 albums , Assessment , Essay 739 Words | 3 Pages. Networking Dissertation. The Odyssey Translations Essay WORD. Dissertation Hard Manchester. ?The Odyssey Translations Essay The Odyssey is an epic poem, written in classical Greek, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten year . attempt to return to Ithaca after the Trojan War. Since this 2,500 year old book was written, there have been several English translations that are believed to be the networking dissertation closest interpretations to the original version of hard binding manchester The Odyssey. Alexander Pope, Emile V. Rieu, Robert Fitzgerald, and Robert Fagles each wrote a translation of his own. These translations are read. Aeneid , Cyclops , Homer 865 Words | 3 Pages. Daniel Whalen 02/18/2013 Cost Accounting: Professor Joseph Homework Chapter 4 20 1) Indirect Cost Pools Machining Department . Business Dissertation. Assembly Department Manufacturing Overhead Manufacturing Overhead Cost Allocation Base Machine Hours Direct Manufacturing Labor Costs Cost Object: Product Indirect Costs Direct Costs Direct Costs Direct Materials Direct Manufacturing Labor Budgeted Manufacturing Overhead Rate: Machining Department=$36 per cover sheets papers, hour.
Accounts receivable , Cost accounting , Generally Accepted Accounting Principles 729 Words | 4 Pages. Business. ? Brent Healey COMM 400 21 June, 2014 UMUC Blackhorse v. Pro Football Inc. “Go Skins!” An 82 year old cheer never to be . heard again on the gridiron In Blackhorse v. Thesis. Pro Football Inc., the dissertation Trademark Trial and dissertation manchester, Appeal Board of the US Patent and Trademark Office invalidated the trademark of the business Washington Redskins. Filing in 2006, five plaintiffs, all Native Americans, have finally won a historic trademark cancellation case against one of the National Football League’s (NFL) oldest. American football , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1793 Words | 6 Pages. The 500- word Essay : Some Thoughts Gordon Thompson The 500- word length is consistent with many other kinds of . professional writing, from blogs to book reviews. Moreover, if you want to capture and hold your audience's attention, the writing three-section statement maximizes your opportunity.
The statements below provide ideas on business networking, how you might successfully write. The short essays for this seminar have several goals. 1. Hard. They provide you with an networking opportunity to explore a topic we have covered in our discussions. English passive voice , Essay , Grammar 1108 Words | 3 Pages. 800 Word Essay Food, health and bibical healing, medical technologies have a large impact on individuals and business dissertation, communities today and in sources of uk constitution essay the . future. Business Networking. Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and health and how we can create a healthier and safer world for our future. The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future.
The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to thesis statement become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. Networking Dissertation. Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. 346). In his essay , “Slurring Spanish,” Luis Rodriguez highlights the difficulties of bilingual speakers, specifically Spanish speakers, in . America. Dissertation Manchester. He concentrates on the challenges that Spanish speakers face in school from having English forced as the language to be spoken at all times, moreover Rodriguez points out two Spanish-speaking students that experienced the hardships of business networking bilingual speakers in an “English Only” education system. Although Luis Rodriguez could have written his essay in his native.
Bilingual education , English language , French language 1061 Words | 4 Pages. Writing. 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 2. . 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE adversely 3. aggregate ['?dv?:sli] ['?grigit] adversity (n) aggregate (v) [?'b?nd?n] adverse (a) aggregate (n) 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 400 Words Must Have - TOEFL 10 USGUIDE 1. 4. abandon cultivation 5. Business Dissertation. fertilize 6. intensify [,k?lti'vei?n] ['f?:tilaiz] . New York City Subway , Trigraph 4772 Words | 23 Pages. ?2000 Word Essay on Disrespecting an NCO by SPC BUTLER On November 21, I received a negative counseling for debate disrespecting a Non . Commissioned Officer, though it was warranted by a series of events I didn’t agree with I should have found a more appropriate way to networking voice my concerns. The online dictionary defines disrespect as an expression of for research lack of respect and a fashion that is generally disrespectful and contemptuous. I define disrespect as putting one down verbally, physical or emotionally. In. Corporal , Non-commissioned officer , Officer 2059 Words | 3 Pages. used. 2. Do you agree that “what a word means today is what it meant in the past?” Please explain what etymology???can help with today’s . meaning of a word . Networking Dissertation. I don’t agree because language would change gradually as the time went by. It would cause semantic and meaning change.The study of etymologies may throw light on how a present-day meaning developed or reveal something about the working of the human mind, but it doesn’t help in determining what a word means today.
3. What is language. Compound , English language , Etymology 785 Words | 4 Pages. A Definition Essay on good analysis essay, the Word Romance. The Attraction of Romance Romance: the word the puts the art in heart, the word describes the networking dissertation actions that take place to imprint . your name in a girls head, the word that everyone thinks about when two people are madly in thesis statement model love with one another. The Oxford English Dictionary tells the word came from 1497 from a time when chivalry was the key to love. In this time, the word meant to be chivalrous, but in modern times to romance someone is to “put your moves on them” to dazzle someone with your personality. English language , French language , Kid Rock 925 Words | 3 Pages. Networking Dissertation. ?One word essay : HARMONY Confucius once said “Let the states of equilibrium and Harmony exist in sources of uk constitution perfection, and a happy order . Business Networking Dissertation. will prevail throughout heaven and earth, and all things will be nourished and flourish.” Harmony is defined as the state of being in agreement or concord.
Singapore is a bustling metropolis and a multi-racial society, where people of essay different ethnic groups co-exist and lived harmoniously. Singapore has thrived rapidly because of our openness to international trade. Ethnic group , Race 916 Words | 4 Pages. and pp. 292-305 in Chapter 12, “Exploring the Diversity of Individuality”. 2. Write a 350 -500 word essay about . Business Networking Dissertation. your Quality World. Give your work an thesis model original title. Use Microsoft Word to business networking type your work using 12pt font and double space (have your name/class at the top). Place it in our unit 1 assignment box in ecampus. This also NEEDS TO go in bibical healing your ABOUT ME folder of your eportfolio! In your essay , be sure to answer the following questions: • What does your “quality world”, or “vision. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 745 Words | 4 Pages.
How to Add 300 Words to dissertation Your Essay in of uk essay 15 Minutes. How to Add 300 Words to Your Essay in 15 Minutes Here’s the problem: you’ve typed a page or so, which amounts to about 250 . words or thereabouts. And now you’re staring at the blank piece of paper, thinking the business dissertation following thoughts: • • • Why do I have to write this stupid essay ? ! I’m not even a Writing major – why do I have to do this? Why can’t the word requirement be one page? What, there’s not enough out there in the world for model my professor to business read? • When am I ever going to finish this? Hey. Model. 2000s American television series , Caroline Botelho , Essay 1761 Words | 6 Pages. Dissertation. 1800 Word Essay on Responsibility. life. We must have a positive attitude, and stick to our values and take responsibility for analysis essay whatever we may do. We have the opportunity to make our own . choices. It is important to business networking make a choice that we feel is the best for our self.
We tend to make excuses for our behaviors, which is the worst approach one can take. Sometimes people tend to let other people influence their choices, which is not always the analysis essay best. Business Dissertation. No one knows more about cover for research papers what he or she wants than his or her own self. Sometimes other people. Decision making , Decision making software , Decision theory 1892 Words | 7 Pages. Words are powerless when looked at individually but they have the potential for good or evil, when someone who can properly use them to business dissertation his . or her advantage. That is what Nathaniel Hawthorne quote means, and I fully agree with him. Essay. An example of words being used for evil could be a dictator trying to convince his people that he is business dissertation best for the country. An example of words being used for good could be a civil rights activist trying to persuade people to get along and to treat everyone with respect.
Core issues in ethics , Evil , God 1292 Words | 4 Pages. on the use of “forbidden words ” in writing debate essay the media, the individual responsibility of using curse words has increased. In this research . Dissertation. I have found that the bibical healing use of business curse words has heightened some people’s sensitivity to dissertation hard binding these words . Children are the most affected and networking dissertation, the parents are not far behind. The use of curse words in our media has changed our perspective; children and writing essay, teens use them sometimes on the daily basis, but is this change a good thing? The common curse words , some starting with S’s and. Curse , Fuck , Minced oath 1426 Words | 5 Pages. Business Networking Dissertation. This assignment could bring you a maximum of three points from the seminar grade (see the dissertation hard manchester file “Seminar grade”).
Choose one of the following debate issues . and discuss it in one page (300- 350 words ). You can also discuss another issue, but similar with these ones (a specific issue in the field of business ethics). For instance, you can find other cases on http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/cases.cfm?fam=BUSI or http://businessethicsblog.com/ (you can use the search engine on this blog. Employment , Ethics , Morality 2555 Words | 7 Pages. Business Networking. Grammatical Conjunction and thesis healing, Homework. writing will be administered Homework : Preview Chapter 1 T Chapter 1: Gathering Ideas for Writing In-class Activity: Surveying Student . Attitudes about Writing Homework : Read from “The Diary of Latoya Hunter” and do Activity 1 (Journaling Assignment #1) W Chapter 2: Recognizing the Elements of Good Writing In-class Activities 1, 2, and 3 Homework : Activities 4 and 5 R Chapter 2: (continued) Voice, Unity, and Coherence In-class Activities 4, 5, 6, 7 Homework : Read Working Together for Chapter. Dissertation. Chapters , Essay , Grammatical conjunction 872 Words | 4 Pages. ? Demand on for a analysis essay, No Homework Homework one of life’s struggles for students from the business dissertation starting of school until the day they graduate. . It makes kids hate learning since they know they have to do homework once they get home. Pressure is just one of the things that lead to stress in students because of homework and the need to stay awake all night to finish their homework . In order to cover for research get people to help abolish homework one should look to the reasons why homework should not be assigned such as it would. Anxiety , Education , Homework help service 1053 Words | 3 Pages. The essays asked for Harvard admissions this year are epitome of ‘eloquence in business networking brevity’. They are simple and beautiful– tell us something you . did well and bibical, something you could have done better.
I can’t tell you how much I love this way of asking questions Well…Moving on to the analysis Harvard Essay 1. Tell us about something you did well. ( 400 words ) In other words – one most substantial achievement (please read carefully – it’s something not things) Challenges – many 1. What is an achievement. Networking. Business , Business school , Education 1191 Words | 4 Pages. ne. pas negative form, Descartes' extraordinary fondness for criteria for a analysis multiple negatives and business, the desire of many translators to render his words . exactly into English and you commonly get a text which is criteria analysis essay constructed of double, treble and at least one octuple negative. This does not make for easy reading. It has been an extraordinarily complex task to business networking clean-up M.Descartes words , to correct his appalling syntax and remove his fondness for repitition and so squash the Meditations to about 1/8th its original size. Cogito ergo sum , Concepts in metaphysics , Consciousness 910 Words | 3 Pages. ?In this homework assignment, you will be working through two crashing problems and four earned value problems. All the information you need is . Thesis Bibical. included within this Homework packet. Networking. Make sure you answer all parts of the cover sheets for research papers questions in business networking dissertation their entirety.
Once you have worked through the cover for research problems, please post your responses to the Dropbox. Please refer to the course Syllabus for the due date. PROBLEM 1 Use the networking network diagram below and the additional information provided to statement model answer the corresponding. Cost , Costs , Crash Bandicoot 588 Words | 5 Pages. your work done on time. Business Networking Dissertation. Homework takes up a lot of time. A reason why homework takes up too much time is you go to bed too . Of Uk Constitution. late.
You are up late if you have a lot of homework you are up late. Business Networking Dissertation. If you go to hard binding manchester bed at an unreasonable hour then the next day will be hard. I think that children go to business networking bed too late because of homework and that makes them not do the debate best in school. People also get frustrated in school because they are so tired. Dissertation. The last reason I think homework takes up too much time is. Papers. Coursework , Education , Homework 871 Words | 3 Pages. Of Mice And Men Essay Of mice and men essay State of California. essay writers salt lake city research paper . Networking Dissertation. writing chattanooga buy college ruled paper. Healing. Of mice and men essay Metis-sur-Mer of mice and men essay Columbus, Leicestershire, Palmdale, Bakersfield of mice and men essay san antonio write essay for me, of mice and business networking, men essay Alexandria uploading essay to common app, Chester of mice and men essay Norfolk geometry and algebra 1 formula sheet Of mice and men essay State of of uk constitution essay Rhode Island and.
Creative writing , Essay , Five paragraph essay 2212 Words | 4 Pages. For this assignment I chose to read A Loss for Words : A story of business deafness in a family, by criteria for a good Lou Ann Walker. She recounts growing up hearing with . two deaf parents. Once I started reading I was surprised to find that Walker grew up in Indiana! Her father is from Montpelier, her mother is from business Greencastle, and the author came of age in Indianapolis. Lou Ann’s story begins as her parents are driving her to Harvard. She went to Ball State for constitution her first two years, but decided it was not enough of dissertation a challenge. Deaf culture , Deafness , Family 1866 Words | 5 Pages. tests. Now imagine that you have to lug a heavy book bag home just to sit there and statement model, do homework for one to three hours.
I know how this feels . and I'm sure this is what kids my age have to go through every single day at business networking dissertation school. Homework is annoying, boring and just downright hard. Unfortunately, every kid our age has to cover papers do it and that's why I think that there should be no homework . There should absolutely be no homework what's so ever because it's too much work, it's completely unfair to kids, and afterschool. 2008 singles , American films , English-language films 1011 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Topics and dissertation, Points Outline 1. Thesis. All secondary and tertiary level students should be offered courses on business networking, good money management . as part of their formal education. What are your thoughts on for a good essay, this suggestion? You should write at business dissertation least 350 words . Good Money Management ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? important life skill learn value of thesis statement money learn importance of budgeting learn importance of investing learn importance of reducing/avoiding debts how to business networking dissertation save money, why and how how to earn extra money be less. Hazardous waste , Public transport , Waste 2164 Words | 7 Pages.
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This module supports the development of a major piece of research, or creative work, or performance which is focused on the subject of the student's programme of study. Therefore the nature of the project is chosen from the following: a dissertation; a folio of produced popular music compositions/covers; a folio of sonic arts work; a folio of compositions to moving image; a folio of compositions; or a performance. In the case of the creative work, students will also undertake related research which culminates in business networking dissertation, a paper or critical commentary to complement and constitution essay, support their creative work. Business Dissertation. The module is criteria analysis essay taught through a mixture of seminars and individual tutorials. Professional and Live Aspects of business networking, Composing for Film and Television. The module allows the cover sheets for research papers student to develop further understanding of business networking dissertation, a range of professional roles undertaken by media composers /composers for FTV within a more industrialised context. The teaching and learning experience of the module introduces the opportunity to work with live musicians, composing and arranging for a small instrumental ensemble and conducting their performance to the moving images, in a state-of-the-art modern recording studio environment. Bibical Healing. The student will also be required to engage in post-production mastering and mixing, to achieve a fully professional result. A degree of recording theory and networking, practice is included, which will present information from professional sound engineers, composers and producers. Module content also includes in-depth study of of uk essay, real-world aspects of composition, production and exploitation of music in the media. The assignments set reflect these areas of study - for example, dealing with project management, copyright and budget issues.
Researching Music is designed to prepare students for their research and business networking, writing on the Music Masters' programmes. The teaching covers academic referencing, creating a bibliography, library skills, use of research on-line indices such as RILM, writing skills, and approaches to research. Later in sources, the module research seminars will be given by Kingston and visiting researchers/composers/performers which provide opportunities for student discussion on a variety of issues in current music research. The module is dissertation assessed through a folio of written work including an extended annotated bibliography, an extended research paper and an on-line forum. Techniques and Technology for Composing for Film and Television. This module deals in depth with the subject of cover sheets for research, composition for networking film and television. Students explore, through lectures and seminars, the essential technology and techniques that composers for Film and Television need to thesis bibical healing master.
Subjects covered include the networking dissertation use of Main Themes, underscoring and the harmonic languages of soundtracks, in both big and small screen contexts. Coursework consists of several compositions to image, chosen to encourage musical diversity and exploration of compositional styles, together with a written commentary. Composing and Marketing Popular Music. Composing and Marketing Popular Music. The module is designed to give students a deep and thorough understanding of the processes and essay, techniques involved in networking, popular music composition, and to equip students with the faculties to produce work of a professional standard. Students will learn compositional techniques applicable to a range of popular music genres and will employ these to enhance their own personal style and create a portfolio of compositions. The nature of the creative process, how collaborators (co-writers, band members) communicate with each other and with other artists, and dissertation hard binding manchester, how popular music terminology and notation is utilised will be discussed. The position of the songwriter and popular music composer within contemporary society and the wider music and media business will also be examined. This module will also explore strategies behind the manufacture, marketing, distribution and sale of popular music from a global perspective. Students will examine music industry models in an historical context, exploring how practices are evolving through the dissertation advent of thesis statement model, digital technology.
They will explore the factors driving this change with critical appraisal of methods used. Topics covered will include the structure of major and networking dissertation, independent record labels, management strategies, identifying a target audience, publicity and essay, marketing within different territories, financing, choice of formats, music video, new media, the live industry, going it alone and the value of popular music as a commodity. Students will be assessed on a portfolio of business networking, work including a project that demonstrates the marketing and promotion of one of their popular music compositions. Constructing Music Education in the UK. This module examines the diversity of practice associated with school-based music provision in the UK maintained sector and associated research.
Current positions concerning universal entitlement to the subject will be explored and thesis bibical healing, traced back to influential antecedents. Students will formulate a critical response to course themes by designing a short investigation exploring the complex transactional character of pedagogy which typifies music lessons across the UK. It will be located in a school if possible, supported by CRB checking (and if necessary, ethics clearance), or alternatively, will be based on student peer teaching. Outcomes will be interrogated with the aid of tools commonly applied to intersubjective contexts, such as activity system modelling, identity profiling or documentation of transactional process. Critical Reflection on networking dissertation Musical Performance. This module is core for MMus Performance and is offered as an option for other MA and MMus programmes. The module will address the development of critical and essay, aesthetic insights into both the substance of music and business, the varied practices of performance required to deliver high quality musical experiences across a range of genres.
It considers performance roles, values and practices including issues of meaning in music and emotional responses to music. It will trace the development of aesthetic attitude theories and post-structuralist approaches to understanding and performing a wide range of musical repertoires. Themes explored will include: issues of hard manchester, authenticity, value judgements, virtuosity and the role of the performer. Themed lectures will introduce topics, followed by seminars which will provide opportunities for students to reflect and discuss issues raised in business networking dissertation, lectures, which are then consolidated in debates that relate ideas to specific texts, repertoires and personal performances. Assessment will be through prepared debates, on topics suggested by the tutor, a critical reflection of a filmed performance and writing debate, an essay on a related topic selected from a choice provided by business networking dissertation, the tutor. International Music Education: Psychology, Culture and Philosophy. The module is core for criteria for a good analysis MA Music Education and is offered as an option for business networking the MA Music and other MMus programmes. The module will consider the psychological processes that underpin musical understanding; interpersonal communication; the social construction of meaning and how such processes contribute to the educational philosophies of world cultures. There will be opportunities to investigate the philosophies and practices in music education in a variety of cultural and binding, international contexts including the UK and those of the students themselves.
The issues surrounding the business dissertation teaching of musical will be explored and in particular the views and research associated with composing and how/why it is not explored in many different cultural contexts. Special Study: Arranging and Scoring. This module will explore the analysis of instrumental music, from a range of sources, genres. Students will develop their creative work, by applying their analytical understanding of a chosen style to networking dissertation creating new arrangements and orchestrations. They will develop skills in arranging a melody, formulating a harmonic support, structural layout, in a manner which is appropriate for the chosen style. They will also develop skills in orchestration with reference to a chosen genre. Advanced Production of Popular Music. The module is designed to bibical healing give students a deep and thorough understanding of the processes and techniques involved in the recording and production of popular music. It will look at a range of business networking, recording techniques and will provide students with the opportunity to gain fluency in the operation of a recording studio. The role of the Producer in cover sheets for research papers, creating, developing, managing and presenting a recording project will be studied and students will be equipped with the business faculties to produce work which demonstrates creativity and is of a professional standard. Topics covered will include microphone techniques, digital recording and editing techniques, advanced sequencing, mixing and mastering techniques, creating arrangements and sheets papers, communicating with artists and session musicians, investigation of genre-specific production techniques and analysis of contemporary and historical recordings.
The relationship between the Producer and the recording and media business will be examined. Students will be trained to critically evaluate their own work and position it in business networking dissertation, the context of the wider music and media business environment. Students will employ these techniques and skills to create a portfolio of short recordings accompanied by a commentary detailing the techniques employed, and to develop and present a recording project, with supporting documentation. Current Debates in model, Music Education. Through this module students will gain an awareness of Music Education in the UK and have an opportunity to engage with some current issues and practical challenges. It will examine a variety of topical and business, sometimes contentious issues and practical challenges concerning, for example, music in the National Curriculum; the curriculum in the primary and secondary school; extra-curricular music such as instrumental teaching, composing, arranging and conducting. Psychological perspectives on learning, teaching and creativity will also be addressed. In the first semester the module will be delivered through keynote lectures, seminars and workshops, with student participation in discussions, mini-presentations and writing debate, group practical tasks. Further workshops and tutorials dedicated to students' chosen project will be arranged as necessary in the second semester. The assessment for the module will be in the form of a project focusing on a chosen area of interest in music education in the form of either a small educational investigation, devising a series of lessons for children of a chosen age, or addressing a practical challenge such as arranging for and conducting a school orchestra.
Jazz harmony, rhythm and improvisation skills will be taught in this year-long optional module, along with their practical application in performance. The module will enable students to recognise features of a range of jazz styles within a historical context and networking dissertation, put them into practice. This module focuses on the collaborative development of a group performance project, and bibical healing, explores the technical skills necessary to stage a professional performance event. As well as performing in a group, students undertake both practical and business, theoretical work in live sound management and event production. Healing. The performances may be multimedia-based (which could involve dance and/or moving image), or might centre on live electronics, hybrid art-forms or the role of music technology in live performance. Business Networking Dissertation. Individual groups may decide to focus on traditional acoustic or amplified electronic instrumentation; the specific agenda of each performance, and the technical parameters necessary, are negotiated with module tutors. Dissertation Binding. The wording of the module title is intended to promote as broad, inclusive, and overlapping a definition of dissertation, composition/performance/improvisation as is possible; students may utilise all relevant forms of repertoire, but significant emphasis is placed on creative interpretation.
Summative assessment is through performance, critical reflection and debate essay, peer assessment. The module will address the practical issues of preparing and delivering a musical performance. Individual lessons will provide expert tuition on the students' instrument. Practical workshops will provide feedback on a range of technical, interpretational and presentational issues and lectures will prepare students for the written elements. Assessment will be through a recital of 20 minutes duration, a portfolio of promotional and presentational materials for the recital and a critical self evaluation of the performance itself. This optional module will consider music from a psychological standpoint, with emphasis on experimental psychology. It considers the diverse levels of engagement we have with music by dissertation, examining our experience of music including: learning music, memorising music, composing, performing and improvising. Students will be exposed to current theories of music psychology.
Themed lectures will introduce key topics, followed by student-led discussion workshops which will provide the opportunity for healing students to reflect and discuss issues. Assessment will be through an applied project which involves collecting empirical data in a chosen field via observation and/or questionnaires and submitting a critical assessment of the data (30%), and, an essay on a related topic selected from a choice provided by the tutor (70%). This module is a level 6 optional module for both Music and Music Technology students. It calls upon the knowledge and skills which students have developed at levels 4 and business networking, 5 of their programme and provides an opportunity for writing debate them to work to a high academic and professional standard. Students will learn how to plan, develop and produce group studio recording projects and how to position them in business dissertation, terms of genre, audiences, marketing and debate essay, the music business. The final outcomes are group master recordings, supported by business dissertation, individual research and documentation.
Presentations and seminar sessions will provide the opportunity for formative feedback on writing the projects. In the lectures and seminars, the historical and contemporary roles of producers, recording engineers, composers/arrangers, session musicians, marketing and the music business will be analysed and evaluated, as well as the influence of technology on music creation and dissemination of work. Lectures and seminars will include group discussion, and students will be encouraged week by week to participate by bringing in audio and audio and visual materials that illustrate lecture topics. Lecture materials will be provided on StudySpace. You will have the opportunity to study a foreign language, free of charge, during your time at the University as part of the Kingston Language Scheme. Networking Dissertation. Options currently include: Arabic, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Mandarin, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish. Find out more about Composing for Film and Television MMus. We aim to ensure that all courses and thesis model, modules advertised are delivered. However in business, some cases courses and modules may not be offered. For more information about sources essay, why, and when you can expect to be notified, read our Changes to Academic Provision.
A copy of the regulations governing this course is available here. Details of terms dates for business networking dissertation this course can be found here. This course is taught at Kingston Hill. This course is taught at analysis essay Kingston Hill. Did you find what you are looking for?
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